AFinLA-teema 2023-11-28T00:00:00+02:00 Irina Piippo Open Journal Systems <p>AFinLA-teema on avoin verkkojulkaisu, jossa julkaistaan teemajulkaisuja. Niiden artikkelit ovat käyneet läpi vastaavan vertaisarvioinnin kuin AFinLAn vuosikirjassa julkaistavat artikkelit. AFinLA-teeman nimi oli aiemmin AFinLA-e: Soveltavan kielitieteen tutkimuksia. Nimi vaihdettiin 2022. Julkaisu on 29.2.2016 alkaen ottanut käyttöön Tieteellisten seurain valtuuskunnan vertaisarviointitunnuksen ja sitoutunut noudattamaan sen käytölle asetettuja ehtoja (ks. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>). Tunnus merkitään myöntöpäivämäärän jälkeen julkaistuihin kokoomateoksiin sekä niihin sisältyviin artikkeleihin. Muutos ei vaikuta aiempiin julkaisuihin; ne on vertaisarvioitu samoja kriteerejä ja periaatteita noudattaen.</p> <p><img src="" alt="" /><br /><br />ISSN 2814-6298</p> Muuttuva ja moninainen kielenoppiminen 2023-02-17T09:00:22+02:00 Anne Pitkänen-Huhta Karita Mård-Miettinen Tarja Nikula <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 7"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 7"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article, a lead-in to the special issue, starts by discussing the key characteristics of language education in Finland, with a special focus on how the official bilingualism and development of multilingualism feature in the structures of language education. Secondly, the article presents some recent turns in research on language use and learning, which have influenced current ways of understanding language learning. Research has shown that language learning is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, which needs to be approached from various disciplinary angles. Thirdly, the article discusses ways of portraying the complexity and layeredness of language and language learning and identifies five key themes characterising the way language learning is approached in the articles of this special issue. Finally, the 17 articles in the special issue are presented.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Motivoimalla monikieliseksi maailmankansalaiseksi 2023-02-09T13:23:33+02:00 Teija Kangasvieri Ari Huhta Paula Kalaja <div class="page" title="Page 7"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 31"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article reviews one of the key concepts involved in the learning and teaching of Modern Foreign Languages (MFL), namely, motivation. The article attempts to define motivation and other closely related terminology and outlines developments in research on the issue over the past few decades by summarizing empirical research carried out in Finland and elsewhere. The article draws on the framework of the Douglas Fir Group (2016), and thus, motivation is approached from a variety of starting points: individuals, groups of people, and society, or the concept is viewed from micro, meso and macro levels of society. The article concludes by discussing some practical applications and indicating a need for further education of those involved in MFL teaching to ensure their agency in classrooms and to empower them in pursuing their professional careers.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Moninaisten oppijoiden tukeminen vieraiden kielten opetuksessa eriyttämisen keinoin 2023-02-15T08:08:05+02:00 Katja Mäntylä Anssi Roiha Kati Kajander <div class="page" title="Page 55"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article discusses differentiation as a means of providing individual support for foreign language learners. In line with inclusive education, all language teachers need to have some knowledge of how to support a wide range of learners. Differentiation is an approach to teaching in which all students’ individuality is taken into account. In this article, we introduce common problems affecting language learning and how teachers can tackle or mitigate them through differentiation. We also briefly discuss how teachers can support gifted language learners. We base the article on the 5-dimensional model of differentiation, which distinguishes five dimensions of differentiation: 1) teaching arrangements, 2) learning environment, 3) teaching methods, 4) support materials and 5) assessment. The article aims at offering practical tools for teachers.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Maahanmuuttotaustaisten kielenoppijoiden moninaiset kielet ja polut 2023-02-10T10:28:21+02:00 Sanna Mustonen Sirkku Kronholm Minna Suni <div class="page" title="Page 81"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>While student diversity is increasing, it is crucial for teachers to be aware of how to recognize the importance and potential of the language background and existing skills that their students bring with them. This article presents some research findings and data excerpts on how these are reflected in the learners’ opportunities for participation in interaction and various activities in learning communities. The theoretical framework consists of ecological and usage-based approaches that have served as a basis for pedagogies that center multilingual repertoires, language awareness and social interaction at the core of language learning. The perspective adopted in the article is primarily that of individual learners who are learning Finnish as their second language. Some future prospects in the field of language education are also discussed with regard to the increasing student diversity and the need for ensuring equitable language learning opportunities for all.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Aikuisten kielenoppijoiden vuorovaikutuskompetenssin kehittyminen luokkahuoneen ulkopuolisissa oppimisympäristöissä 2023-02-16T08:22:06+02:00 Niina Lilja Laura Eilola Anna-Kaisa Jokipohja Arja Piirainen-Marsh <div class="page" title="Page 105"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>There are more newcomers to Finland than ever before. One of the biggest challenges for language education is to develop pedagogical methods that facilitate adult learners’ access to social encounters in Finnish and help them develop techniques for supporting their own language learning. This article brings together research that has investigated adult second language learners’ language use and development in different everyday encounters. We approach language learning as social action that is manifested at the microlevel in details of interaction. The research we discuss highlights the multimodality of language and interaction and sheds light on the situated, social, and distributed nature of cognition.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Tunteiden yhteys oppijoiden ja opettajien identiteetteihin kielenopetuksessa 2023-02-09T13:26:37+02:00 Kristiina Skinnari Maria Ruohotie-Lyhty Josephine Moate Sotiria Varis <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 126"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Emotions and identities are at the core of all human activity and learning. Emotions motivate us, help us to make sense of our experiences and teach us about ourselves, in other words shape our identities. Emotions are thus in a key role in planning and developing language teaching at schools. This article focuses on the role of emotions and identities in learning and teaching a language. The article shows how different emotions affect language learning and the identity development processes of the learner, and how language teachers can help their students to deal with their emotions and turn them as a resource for identity development. We also look at the meaning of emotions and teacher identities in language teacher development.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Kaksikielinen varhaiskasvatus toisen kielen oppimisen ympäristönä 2023-02-15T12:55:30+02:00 Karita Mård-Miettinen Katri Hansell Maria Kvist <div class="page" title="Page 142"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 142"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article addresses bilingual early childhood education and care (ECEC) as an environment for second language learning. Bilingual education is planned teaching of educational content in two (or more) languages in a ECEC unit or school. One of the languages is usually a new language (second language, target language) to the participating children. In Finland, bilingual education can be either large-scale (over 25% in the target language) or small-scale (under 25% in the target language). This article first discusses the concept of bilingual ECEC and how it is stipulated in the National ECEC Core Curriculum in Finland. It then reflects the characteristics of ECEC and bilingual ECEC, in particular, by addressing issues of operational culture, learning environment and language practices.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema ​Monikielinen perhe ja koulu 2023-02-09T13:34:28+02:00 Åsa Palviainen Polina Vorobeva Pauliina Sopanen <div class="page" title="Page 164"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Increased migration and mobility have had a significant impact on (multilingual) family lives and led to the influx of multilingual children in schools in Finland. This article approaches the home-school space as an interflow of discourses and identities. It focuses on processes and discourses circulating through and around multilingual families – on the meso level of social activity. The article illustrates how the meso level (i.e., family and school) is shaped by and connected with the macro and micro levels, such as a representation of multilingual families in the Official Statistics Finland and teacher/parent-child interaction. The article introduces two theoretical approaches in the research of family multilingualism and discusses how multilingualism can be approached in the fluid and interconnected domains of family and school. It concludes by illustrating some gaps between home and school in relation to family multilingualism and provides some suggestions as to how to overcome them.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Monikielisen toimijuuden tukeminen koulun toimintayhteisössä 2023-02-09T11:53:55+02:00 Heini Lehtonen Maria Ahlholm Salla-Maaria Suuriniemi Anne Tiermas <div class="page" title="Page 181"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This chapter discusses multilingual agency and its construction in the school. Regarding multilingualism, we describe five discursive spaces that organize interaction in the communities of practice: monolingualism, parallel monolingualism, situational multilingualism, institutional multilingualism, and a hybrid space with new ethnicities. The teacher’s actions and the chosen pedagogical approach transform the discursive and spatial norms; transforming norms and practices go hand in hand. The teacher can facilitate individual students in becoming autonomous agents, in interaction with the community. Developing multilingual agency requires student reflection, and dynamic feedback provided by the teacher. Including pupils with different backgrounds in learning is crucial in times of transnational lives. Thus, the practices of the school communities must be grounded in social justice and equity. Translanguaging and linguistically responsive pedagogies offer inquiry-based practices for inclusive language education that supports the pupils’ multilingual selves and language ownership.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Kielen ja sisällön integrointi: alakohtaiset kieli- ja tekstikäytänteet aineenopetuksessa 2023-03-07T20:11:11+02:00 Sari Sulkunen Tarja Nikula Leila Kääntä <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 203"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Integrating the teaching of disciplinary language and literacy practices and content knowledge has been a key concern in many educational contexts. This article focuses on disciplinary language and literacy in content-area teaching in basic education, a shared concern for teaching regardless of the language of instruction (L1, L2, FL). First, we describe two distinct traditions into studying and teaching disciplinary language and literacy: disciplinary literacy teaching and content and language integrated learning (CLIL). We then introduce two practical pedagogical examples on how language and literacy are integrated into content-area teaching. Finally, we discuss future directions and implications for both research on and teaching of disciplinary language and literacy.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Virtuaalisuus ja videovälitteisyys kielenoppimisympäristöjen muokkaajana 2023-03-29T13:37:04+03:00 Teppo Jakonen Miiko Siivonen Heidi Jauni <div class="page" title="Page 224"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article addresses the current use and future prospects of virtual and video-mediated language teaching and learning. We outline some basic considerations in the use of virtual and video-mediated tools for language teaching and learning initiatives, and introduce recent studies on these technologies with a particular focus on the educational context of Finland. We discuss how virtual and video-mediated tools can create opportunities for interactive learning environments and shape practices of language teaching and learning by configuring their multimodal, embodied and mediated nature. To conclude, we reflect on what the integration of virtual and video-mediated technologies in pedagogically meaningful language learning environments calls tor from teachers, schools and teacher education.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Kielitaidon arviointi koulussa 2023-04-03T16:55:55+03:00 Ari Huhta Dmitri Leontjev Mari Honko Raili Hildén <div class="page" title="Page 243"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>While assessment is related to all levels of the Douglas Fir Group’s (2016 hereinafter, DFG) framework, in this paper, we focus on language assessment in schools, that is, institutional meso level. However, we will also discuss micro (individual) and macro (societal) levels of the framework. We will discuss school classroom assessment focusing on four themes: (1) the understanding of quality of assessment in formal education, (2) assessment literacy required from teachers, (3) technology in assessment, and (4) challenges and opportunities that multilingualism in society and schools brings for assessment. We will also discuss future developments in Finnish classroom assessment research and practice, or indeed, a combination of the two.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Suomalaisen koulutuspolitiikan tasa-arvopyrkimykset: heijastumia ja katvealueita kielikoulutuksessa 2023-02-09T15:57:13+02:00 Johanna Ennser-Kananen Erja Kilpeläinen Taina Saarinen <div class="page" title="Page 268"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In this article, we examine Finnish language education in relation to the historical developments of promoting equality in Finnish education policy. We focus on language education in basic education and discuss this topic through the lens of three cases: the comprehensive school reform, projects to develop language education, and heritage language teaching. Although, in international comparison, the Finnish educational system has good outcomes for certain equality measures (e.g., small differences in student achievement between schools), many aspects of equality have been overlooked. In addition, success in PISA and achieving European goals of mother tongue plus two languages may have caused a certain level of complacency or reluctance to develop the educational system. When striving for justice and equality in language education, it is important to understand the historical and societal structures that have maintained and reproduced inequality up to today.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Kielimaisemat kielikoulutuspolitiikan kohteena ja tekijänä kieliparikouluissa 2023-04-11T20:04:20+03:00 Tuuli From Tamás Péter Szabó Petteri Laihonen <div class="page" title="Page 292"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This chapter examines the relationship between language ideologies, language education policies and linguistic landscapes in education. Our context is co-located Swedish- and Finnish-medium schools that share the school building but function as separate and administratively monolingual units. Basic education in Finland is organized separately for both national languages and the separation has been considered crucial to shelter Swedish as a de facto minority language. Therefore, co-located schools have raised some critical voices but more recently also increasing interest as multilingual learning environments. In this chapter, we examine co-located schools with a focus on linguistic landscapes and how they enable and constrain multilingual social practices and language learning. We conclude that even if co-located schools provide a linguistically diverse learning environment, the utilization of these linguistic resources for the purposes of language learning requires long-term planning.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Sosiaalinen oikeudenmukaisuus, kieli ja koulutus 2023-02-09T12:19:42+02:00 Päivi Iikkanen Johanna Ennser-Kananen Minna Intke-Hernandéz Sanna Riuttanen <div class="page" title="Page 311"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Socially just education calls for recognizing societal power structures, working actively towards dismantling oppression and implementing more equitable educational practices. Cultural diversity has gained a foothold in Finnish education policies and core curricula, but there is a great deal of variation in how themes related to social justice are dealt with on the practical level. As an entry point to social justice-oriented education, we first discuss social identities and intersectionality in language learning. Then we discuss the decolonization of teaching and learning and introduce two approaches to more equitable education: translanguaging and raciolinguistics. Finally, we suggest some further directions towards more social justice-oriented language education. These would entail for example adopting an explicit decolonial and anti- oppressive stance and incorporating pedagogies developed and led by minoritized scholars, activists and practitioners. Raciolinguistic and intersectional approaches would lend themselves well towards this end. Teachers need training and support in implementing these pedagogies.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Ruotsi toisena kansalliskielenä kielellisesti muuttuvassa Suomessa 2023-02-13T09:37:48+02:00 Siv Björklund Sanna Pakarinen <div class="page" title="Page 335"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The aim of the article is to present language ideologies about Swedish as the other national language in Finland. The article focuses on Swedish-medium basic education for first language speakers but also highlights ideologies about Swedish and bilingualism in Swedish-medium speech island schools for Swedish speakers and in Swedish immersion education for Finnish speakers in Finnish-medium schools. Based on selected studies and reports, the article investigates attitudes towards the Swedish language and the Swedish-speaking population of Finland. The review shows that the position of Swedish is still controversial in Finland. Furthermore, the Swedish-medium education has a significant role for the status of Swedish in society. The language ideologies about Swedish in speech island schools and in immersion are linked to maintaining the language and including it as a part of individual or societal bilingualism.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Kielikoulutus valmistamassa monikieliseen työelämään 2023-03-10T13:23:49+02:00 Maiju Strömmer Minna Suni Katharina Ruuska Päivi Iikkanen <div class="page" title="Page 354"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Over the last couple of decades, working life in Finland has become more multilingual, multi-sited, mobile and digitalised. At the same time, Finland increasingly relies on work-based immigration to fill gaps in the workforce. Since language skills are considered key to employment, language education plays an important role in migrants’ integration into the Finnish labour market and work communities. This article discusses the role of language(s) and language education in increasingly complex working life contexts with particular emphasis on Finnish as a second language. We first provide an overview of ongoing developments in Finnish working life and issues regarding recruitment, language requirements and language practices at multilingual workplaces. Second, we describe how language education in vocational education, integration training and higher education is (re)designed to facilitate migrants’ employment. Finally, we discuss how work communities and language educators can respond to the challenges of an increasingly complex and multilingual work life.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema Kielitaidon arviointi on ideologisesti latautunutta toimintaa 2023-02-22T11:42:02+02:00 Mari Honko Mia Halonen <div class="page" title="Page 377"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Language assessment is an activity guided by prevailing language ideologies as well as more general ideas that permeate the entire society. In this chapter, we will examine the ideologies of language proficiency descriptors and assessment, based on the theoretical perspectives of critical language testing (e.g. Lynch 2001; Shohamy 2001). More specifically, we will present some of the key concepts of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR, Council of Europe 2001, 2020a) and assessment based on the framework, especially on test assessment. With the help of concrete examples, we will also show that a deep understanding of the effects of language assessment and the development of assessment require recognition of both its ideology, its origin, and the mechanisms of its effects.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-12-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2023 AFinLA-teema