AFinLA-teema <p>AFinLA-teema on avoin verkkojulkaisu, jossa julkaistaan teemajulkaisuja. Niiden artikkelit ovat käyneet läpi vastaavan vertaisarvioinnin kuin AFinLAn vuosikirjassa julkaistavat artikkelit. AFinLA-teeman nimi oli aiemmin AFinLA-e: Soveltavan kielitieteen tutkimuksia. Nimi vaihdettiin 2022. Julkaisu on 29.2.2016 alkaen ottanut käyttöön Tieteellisten seurain valtuuskunnan vertaisarviointitunnuksen ja sitoutunut noudattamaan sen käytölle asetettuja ehtoja (ks. <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>). Tunnus merkitään myöntöpäivämäärän jälkeen julkaistuihin kokoomateoksiin sekä niihin sisältyviin artikkeleihin. Muutos ei vaikuta aiempiin julkaisuihin; ne on vertaisarvioitu samoja kriteerejä ja periaatteita noudattaen.</p> <p><img src="" alt="" /><br /><br />ISSN 2814-6298</p> Suomen soveltavan kielitieteen yhdistys AFinLA ry fi-FI AFinLA-teema 2814-6298 <p>Tekijänoikeus säilyy kirjoittajalla siten, että sen alkuperäinen julkaisuoikeus on tällä lehdellä (AFinLA-e: Soveltavan kielitieteen tutkimuksia).&nbsp; Artikkelia voi vapaasti käyttää opetuksessa ja muihin ei-kaupallisiin tarkoituksiin siten, että lähteenä mainitaan tekijä(t), artikkeli, lehden nimi ja numero sekä artikkelin URL-osoite kokonaisuudessaan.</p> <ul> <li><em>The license of the published metadata is Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).</em></li> <li><em>Julkaistujen</em> <em>artikkeleiden</em> <em>metadatan</em> <em>käyttölisenssi</em><em> on Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0). </em></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> Vapaasti tuotettu puhe tutkimuksen kohteena <p>Freely produced speech is a common source of data for speech research. This article is an introduction to this thematic volume and discusses freely produced speech from different perspectives. Freely produced speech is often seen as the opposite of controlled, often phonetic experiments in laboratory conditions. However, it is very difficult to determine which data collection methods are sufficient for freely produced speech to be considered authentic and natural. The topics of the articles included vary from dialectological research in Finland and the phonetic features of Namibian English to second language fluency studies as well as proficiency or speaker assessments in a second language. As this thematic issue will show, it is essential to conduct research on freely produced speech in a comprehensive way, as well as to understand the importance of the results obtained. The way freely produced speech is assessed can have a significant impact on an individual’s life, for example, in gatekeeper evaluations.</p> Minnaleena Toivola Leena Maria Heikkola Pekka Lintunen Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 5–21 5–21 10.30660/afinla.144710 ”Tavoitteena on tarkastella luontevaa arkikeskustelua” – Vapaa, spontaani, luonnollinen ja aito (arki-)puhe fennistisissä murteita käsittelevissä väitöskirjoissa <p>The study examines the concept of free(ly produced) (‘vapaa’) speech. The expressions free (‘vapaa’), spontaneous (‘spontaani’), natural (‘luonnollinen’), authentic (‘aito’) and everyday (‘arki-‘) are the subject of the analysis. The research material consists of 51 doctoral dissertations dealing with dialects published in the field of Finnish language studies between 1871 and 2017, from which previously mentioned expressions have been searched qualitatively by means of close reading and mechanically by word searches. The research shows that free(ly produced) (‘vapaa’) speech can be defined in different ways and that speech produced in different speech situations appears at different contexts as both free(ly produced) and non-free(ly produced) speech. The study discusses phonetic experiments, elicitation methods, and interview and conversation as data acquisition methods and speech situations in language research. The study shows that although the scientific field has emphasized that no speech is more natural and authentic than another, in practice such assessments are made in research discourses (dissertations).</p> Lotta Aarikka Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 23–47 23–47 10.30660/afinla.136896 Venäläisen aksentin tunnistaminen suomen suullisen kielitaidon arvioinnissa <p>The paper focuses on the Russian accent in the Finnish oral proficiency test. The data consist of spontaneous monologues on an intermediate proficiency level from 10 speakers (about 90 s each). Raters (n=44) were asked to identify the accent in the speech samples as well as to give justifications for their recognition in their own words. The analysis is based on a classification of the raters’ comments as well as auditory and acoustic analysis by the author. The results show that the raters paid most attention to individual sounds, but also palatalization and intonation were mentioned as the reasons for detection of the Russian accent. To conclude, further and more detailed acoustic analysis is needed to gain more understanding of the phonetic features of Russian accented Finnish.</p> Riikka Ullakonoja Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 49–76 49–76 10.30660/afinla.137869 The production of voicing in Namibian English stops by speakers of Khoekhoegowab <p>This study examines whether Namibian English spoken by L1 Khoekhoegowab speakers has word-initial stop voicing contrasts, and how they might be realized in freely produced speech. The data consists of English interviews collected from nine speakers of Namibian English. For analysis, a total of 365 words beginning with a stop-vowel sequence were extracted from the interviews, and analyzed for voice onset time (VOT). To examine the realization of voicing, the extracted words are divided into voiced and voiceless categories based on their phonological voicing in other varieties of English and their VOTs are compared statistically. The VOTs of voiceless stops are significantly longer than those of voiced stops. The results suggest a short-lag vs. aspiration contrast in word-initial stops in Namibian English and provide new information about the phonetic features of Namibian English consonants.</p> Katja Haapanen Antti Saloranta Kimmo U. Peltola Henna Tamminen Lannie Uwu-khaeb Maija S. Peltola Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 77–90 77–90 10.30660/afinla.132034 DigiTala – Moodle-sovellus suullisen kielitaidon automaattiseen arviointiin <p>This article presents an online tool developed by the DigiTala research project in 2022. The tool is the first one to provide comprehensive automated assessment of spontaneous L2 Finnish and Swedish speech. The Moodle-based tool records and analyzes L2 learners’ speech automatically and provides holistic as well as analytic feedback to learners. In addition to self-regulated learning purposes, the tool can be used to support human assessment in high-stakes tests and language courses. We discuss the benefits and weaknesses of the tool and automated speaking assessment in general from the perspectives of low-resourced languages as well as developers and users.</p> Anna von Zansen Heini Kallio Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 91–116 91–116 10.30660/afinla.131465 Kielivalinnat ja kielenvaihtaminen ensikielisten ja ei-ensikielisten suomenpuhujien keskusteluissa – Kyselytutkimus <p>Immigration into Finland has increased in recent years. Learning Finnish is essential for integrating into Finnish society. We investigated L1 Finnish speakers’ language choices and language switching in everyday conversations with L2 Finnish speakers, and their reasoning for these choices. The data were gathered in an online survey with 358 respondents. The majority of L1 Finnish speakers reported starting conversations with L2 Finnish speakers in Finnish. However, 95% of respondents also reported switching the language of the conversation to English. The reported reasons were efficiency, speed, politeness and the desire to help. Most respondents also assumed that L2 Finnish speakers would react positively to the language switch. The results outline the need for mutual agreement on language choice and switching in everyday discussions. L1 Finnish speakers should understand the importance of offering possibilities to speak Finnish speakers should understand the importance of offering possibilities to speak Finnish to facilitate language learning and to ensure equality in discussions and aid participation in Finnish society.</p> Leena Maria Heikkola Minnaleena Toivola Jeongdo Kim Antti Saloranta Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 117–141 117–141 10.30660/afinla.132056 Word searches and fluency during problem-solving tasks: a mixed-methods study of L1 Finnish and L2 English interaction <p>Word searches (WSs) have been widely studied in L1 and L2 interaction but have rarely been combined with fluency research. The present study bridges the gap between these research fields by examining WSs and their connections to fluency in L1 and L2 dialogue data. From a larger project, 50 participants’ dialogues (25 L1 Finnish, 25 L2 English) were analyzed for WSs. The mixed-methods analyses focused on potential differences and connections in WS use across the L1 and L2 dialogues and the connections between WSs and fluency among selected participants. The results demonstrated differences especially in the use of solitary WSs across L1 and L2 and some connections between L1 and L2 WSs among individual participants, despite group-level connections not being statistically significant. The qualitative analyses illustrated the potential fluency-enhancing functions of collaborative WSs. The study has implications for L2 speech fluency research and L2 teaching.</p> Pauliina Peltonen Pekka Lintunen Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 143–166 143–166 10.30660/afinla.136027 Fluency profiles in L2 monologue production: the role of underlying cognitive factors <p>This article examines the role of cognitive fluency and different fluency profiles that underlie L2 speech fluency, in relation to cognitive efficiency in L1 and L2, in a group (n = 64) of university students of English. The participants conducted, first, a freely produced monologue narration task in L1 and L2. Second, they performed two cognitive tasks in L1 and L2 measuring the efficiency of lexical access: a rapid word naming task and a Stroop task. Thirdly, L2 proficiency level was assessed with a vocabulary test. The correlations between proficiency and cognitive variables were low to moderate. Based on a cluster analysis, the participants were divided into four fluency profile groups differing in speech and disfluency rate, proficiency, and efficiency of processing. The results suggest that an awareness that learners represent various fluency profiles based on cognitive variables can aid formal teaching situations to include more versatile tasks for different kinds of learners.</p> Sanna Olkkonen Maarit Mutta Pekka Lintunen Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 167–190 167–190 10.30660/afinla.136716 Listener perceptions of L1 speech in L2 and L3 fluency assessment contexts: a qualitative approach <p>Studies on listeners’ perceptions of speech fluency have typically focused on numeric L2 fluency assessments and rarely addressed individual differences in L1 speech fluency qualitatively. The objective of the present study was to examine how listeners attend to speakers’ L1 speech when assessing the speakers’ L2 and L3 fluency. In the study, 37 listeners were presented with freely produced L1 Finnish, L2 English (Experiment I), and L3 Swedish (Experiment II) speech by Finnish-speaking and Finnish–Swedish bilingual speakers (N=30). The listeners first listened to the speakers’ L1 Finnish speech before assessing their target language fluency and then commented on how hearing the L1 speech samples affected their ratings. A qualitative analysis focusing on the listeners’ comments revealed that listeners attend to both temporal and non-fluency related features in L1 speech when assessing target language fluency, but there were clear individual differences across listeners’ intuitive approaches to L1 speech.</p> Elina Lehtilä Pauliina Peltonen Pekka Lintunen Copyright (c) 2024 AFinLA-teema 2024-05-28 2024-05-28 17 191–215 191–215 10.30660/afinla.136100