AFinLAn vuosikirja <p>Suomen soveltavan kielitieteen yhdistyksen (AFinLA) julkaisuja</p> <p>Publications de l'Association Finlandaise de Linguistique Appliquée (AFinLA)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>AFinLAn vuosikirja on&nbsp;29.2.2016 alkaen ottanut käyttöön Tieteellisten seurain valtuuskunnan vertaisarviointitunnuksen ja sitoutunut noudattamaan sen käytölle asetettuja ehtoja (ks.&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>). Tunnus merkitään myöntöpäivämäärän jälkeen julkaistuihin kokoomateoksiin sekä niihin sisältyviin artikkeleihin. Muutos ei vaikuta aiempiin julkaisuihin; ne on vertaisarvioitu samoja kriteerejä ja periaatteita noudattaen.&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/jjalkanen/VA_tunnus_tekstein_pieni.png" alt=""></p> Suomen soveltavan kielitieteen yhdistys AFinLA ry fi-FI AFinLAn vuosikirja 2343-2608 Esipuhe Tanja Seppälä Sirkku Lesonen Päivi Iikkanen Sigurd D'hondt Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 10.30661/afinlavk.124679 Kahden vahvan kielen mallia päivittämässä: maahanmuuttotaustaisten monikielisten peruskoululaisten koulupolku Suomessa, Ruotsissa ja Norjassa <p>The Declaration on a Nordic Language Policy (2006) announces that all permanent residents in the Nordic countries have the right to learn the majority language and develop as users of one’s mother tongue. It is generally accepted that proficiency in two languages leads to good learning results. This article examines timely basic education policy documents about linguistic support for multilingual first and second generation immigrant students in Finland, Sweden and Norway: what premises do they offer to positive bilingualism and double identity construction? We illustrate school paths for newcomers’ support in the study language (L2), and in the students’ mother tongue. The policy documents are open for discussion in all examined countries. The findings show that no ideal system has yet been established. The Finnish way of organizing L2 instruction reminds both of Swedish and Norwegian structures. Critical views on a systemic level are needed for a better modeling of multilingual school.</p> Maria Ahlholm Anna Slotte Kirsi Wallinheimo Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 20 43 10.30661/afinlavk.114589 Vertailututkimus opetussuunnitelmien ja opetusmäärien vaikutuksesta ruotsin kielen oppimiseen <p>Swedish as a second national language is a compulsory subject for all pupils in Finnish-medium basic education and even beyond. In 2016, along with a curriculum reform, learning Swedish was changed to start earlier in Grade 6 instead of the previous Grade 7. Nowadays, pupils study Swedish in four years (Gr. 6–9) instead of three years, but usually still in total 6 weekly lessons. In some municipalities, however, the number of weekly lessons has been raised to a total of 8 in four years. We examined with a Swedish test how pupils’ learning results differ either with an increased number of lessons or with a different number of lessons. We examined pupils’ learning in one school in Helsinki before and after the curriculum reform (6 and 8 weekly lessons), and in one University of Helsinki teacher training school after the reform (6 weekly lessons). The results show that pupils’ Swedish proficiency is on average weak even after the increased number of lessons. The extra hours in the city school have yet supported pupils’ learning, although not in all areas. A slightly larger percentage of pupils in the teacher training school reached the level of good competence compared to the city school, while the situation was exactly opposite with those pupils who exceeded the level of good competence. In a curriculum reform, it would be important to utilize language education research so that the changes support and enhance language learning.</p> Kaisa Hahl Toni Mäkipää Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 44 60 10.30661/afinlavk.114595 Aikuisten kirjoittaminen ja kirjoitustaitotarpeet digitalisoituvassa Suomessa <p>Although currently mainstream concept of multiliteracy refers to both reading and writing, writing research has been overshadowed by reading research. However, digitalization has shaped the ways of writing significantly and the concept of writing might need a new definition. In this article, we focus on Finnish adults’ beliefs on writing. The data comes from a questionnaire we posted on social media channels (FB) and relevant e-mailing lists to a wide range of recipients. We received 90 responses mostly from adults who write frequently. We analyzed the responses using the content analysis and descriptive statistics. The analysis shows, that participating in the digitalized society requires writing literacy, and even though writing in general has been democratized, the differences in writing literacy can also cause inequality. Respondents recognized the need to develop their writing together with others on different platforms. However, more research is needed on the beliefs of less active adult writers.</p> Mari Honko Sari Sulkunen Heidi Vaarala Sini Söyrinki Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 61 85 10.30661/afinlavk.114544 Yläkoulun oppilaiden passiivin tuottamistaidot kielitietoisuuden ja kielen muutosten heijastajana <p>This article deals with Finnish-speaking upper comprehensive school students’ skills to produce Finnish passive verb inflections, with our focus on metalinguistic awareness and self-assessment. The aim of the study was to find out how the participants produce passive verb forms and how they evaluate their production skills. In addition, the study focused on the differences between using passive verbs in standard and colloquial Finnish. The data consisted of the answers to an electronic questionnaire by 111 students from the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades. The results show that the students can change active forms to passive forms quite well, but inflection of passive verbs and correcting colloquial forms to standard language is remarkably challenging for them. In inflecting passive verbs, the students evaluate their skills to be higher than what is reflected in their actual performance. The results of the study also indicate a strong entrenchment and conventionalization of passive congruence in standard Finnish.</p> Annekatrin Kaivapalu Jasmin Rankinen Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 86 108 10.30661/afinlavk.114592 Kestävä kehitys kieltenopetuksessa: kieliaineiden opettajaopiskelijoiden käsityksiä kestävyysaiheista kielten oppitunneilla <p>We studied 1) how pre-service language teachers reacted to the assumption that they should acknowledge sustainable development in language teaching, 2) what considerations they gave to sorting sustainability themes based on their importance, and 3) what themes they considered easy, hard, familiar or unfamiliar to integrate into language teaching and why. We analyzed two questions from a sustainability themed questionnaire considering all dimensions of sustainable development and the group reflections of the pre-service language teachers directly after they had answered the questionnaire. The pre-service language teachers considered sustainable development to be of high importance but were concerned about whether they are qualified to include it in their teaching, and whether they have enough time for it. Based on our results, pre-service language teachers would benefit from schooling in sustainability education, and handling global and local issues separately could help them to better understand sustainability themes.</p> Päivi Laine Salla-Riikka Kuusalu Minna Maijala Maarit Mutta Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 109 132 10.30661/afinlavk.114529 Finnish Matriculation Examination, National Curriculum, and teachers’ attitudes, perspectives, and practices: When the two assessment cultures meet <p>The Finnish National Core Curriculum (NCC) and the Matriculation Examination (ME) are likely to shape what happens in classrooms around Finland, including classroom assessment. The present study aimed at exploring English academically oriented upper secondary school English teachers’ (n = 85) (1) attitudes to changes in the NCC and the ME, (2) their perspectives on these changes, and (3) how their assessment practices were shaped by the NCC and the ME. The data were collected roughly at the time both changes came into force. The data came from a survey and follow-up interviews with four teachers. The results indicated that teachers were quite positive about the changes but anticipated both positive and negative changes in the classroom. Their assessment practices appeared to be shaped more strongly by the ME than the NCC and seemed to impact their attitudes to and perspectives on the two changes.</p> Dmitri Leontjev Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 133 150 10.30661/afinlavk.113656 Tekniikan asiantuntijat jäsentämässä työpaikan saksalais-suomalaista viestintää <p>German-Finnish business communication has been researched widely, but there is still a demand for approaches that consider the features of social action not only in situ but also in terms of their wider dimensions. Following nexus analysis, this study examines how two key actors in the field of technology make sense of German-Finnish communicative practices among IT professionals. Thematic analysis and situational maps were used in exploring the data. The analysis also encompassed the interaction orders, historical bodies and discourses in place as aspects of social action. The interviewees’ accounts revealed the positioning of participants and key events bringing about change in the work community. The findings suggest that meaningful aspects of German-Finnish business communication as portrayed by the interviewees include opportunities for agency, prioritizing of face-to-face communication, and the structured flow of action in the workplace. The study provides implications for developing German-Finnish communication in professional communities.</p> Maarit Leskelä Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 151 169 10.30661/afinlavk.114475 Dynaaminen käyttöpohjainen lähestymistapa kielenoppimisen tutkimukseen <p>The paper presents a relatively new theoretical framework in the field of applied linguistics, more specifically, in the context of second language acquisition. Dynamic usage-based approach is a combination of complex dynamic systems theory and usage-based approaches, and it sees language development as an individual, dynamic process. In this view, L2 constructions are seen to emerge non-linearly when an L2 learner uses the L2 for the purposes of interaction. This paper focuses on some key aspects of the development of L2 learners’ repertoire, namely individual learning trajectories, non-linear development, variability, and dynamics of L2 constructions.</p> Sirkku Lesonen Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 170 191 10.30661/afinlavk.114542 Use of the Karelian language online: websites in Karelian <p>The use of the Karelian language on the internet has grown strongly over recent decades. The aim of this article is to analyze the visibility of the Karelian language on the internet, focusing on websites with a full interface in Karelian. The research data are analyzed comparatively from the perspective of the use of Karelian dialects on different websites. The study shows that the number of websites in Karelian is decreasing. The use of different dialects of Karelian on websites varies. The visibility of the language in official contexts is rare, which could be explained by the lack of official status and the dearth of financial and human resources. This study describes existing websites in Karelian, but also shows the challenges of using Karelian on the internet from a language ideology point of view and in terms of linguistic landscape theory.</p> Ilia Moshnikov Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 192 216 10.30661/afinlavk.113920 Abiturienttien kokemuksia vieraan kielen opiskelun työläydestä ja sen vaikutuksesta lukion kielivalintoihin <p>This paper discusses studying optional languages at upper secondary school in Finland, and in particular students’ views on dropping the optional language. The number of students choosing an optional language has decreased during the past decades. In earlier studies, teachers have suggested that a heavy workload might be one of the main reasons for this decrease. We interviewed nine students at upper secondary school and here we concentrate on those four who discontinued their optional language studies. The data were analysed via content analysis. The results show that the reasons behind dropping an optional language are manifold, and can be traced to individual values, but also to school structures and to how society seems to value languages. Heavy workload is also reflected in answers in different ways: the participants acknowledged that good language skills take time and effort which they were not always willing to invest in.</p> Pirjo Pollari Katja Mäntylä Outi Veivo Jaana Toomar Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 217 233 10.30661/afinlavk.114478 Mobilising assistance via complaints in digital skills courses for adults <p>Within a rapidly digitalising society, it is important to understand how the learning and teaching of digital skills play out in situ, particularly amongst older adults who acquire these skills later in life. This paper focuses on participants engaged in the process of learning digital skills in adult education courses. Using video recordings from adult education centres in Finland and Germany, we explore how students mobilise their teachers’ assistance when encountering problems with their smartphones, laptops or tablets. Prior research on social interaction has shown that assistance can be recruited through a variety of verbal and embodied formats. In this specific educational setting, participants can use complaints about their digital skills or mobile devices to obtain assistance. Utilising multimodal conversation analysis, we describe two basic sequence types involving students’ complaints, discuss their cross-linguistic characteristics, and reflect on their connection to this educational setting and digital devices.</p> Joonas Råman Florence Oloff Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 234 260 10.30661/afinlavk.114591 Suomenoppijoiden toimijuus kotoutumiskoulutuksen yksilöllisissä ratkaisuissa <p>This article examines migrants’ agency related to the individualised and flexible practices available in Integration Training in Finland, with a focus on migrants’ Finnish language learning. The research focused on migrants who have not been studied before, namely those entering training after it had already started. The data consist of background information and interviews of 17 migrants who studied in Integration Training in 2018–2020. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the same practice can support the learner agency of some participants but limit the agency of others. The possibility to make choices about one’s own education varies, and choices are often related to beliefs about language proficiency. In the classroom and during work placement periods, some participants reported having had multiple chances to grasp affordances and use Finnish, others only a few. In summary, the individualised practices available in Integration Training appear to impact participants’ language learning variably, and participants’ wishes do not always align with the available practices.</p> Tanja Seppälä Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 261 287 10.30661/afinlavk.114594 Määräyspatteristo vai krumeluuriteksti – kielipoliittiset dokumentit yliopistojen hallintohenkilöstön näkökulmasta <p>The paper focuses on language policies in two Nordic universities and the way in which administrative staff perceive the policies as instruments of language regulation. There has been much interest recently in multilingualism and language policy in the context of higher education, but there is little research so far focusing on administrative staff. This is despite their key role in both producing and mediating texts for the consumption of a multilingual university community. The study is based on interview and document data collected at the University of Helsinki (Finland) and the University of Stockholm (Sweden). The analysis focuses on how staff talk about the role of the policies in their work and work community, and particularly how they describe the impact of the policies on everyday language practices.</p> Anna Solin Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 288 306 10.30661/afinlavk.114181 Intelligibility and the gravity of segmental deviations in L1 Finnish speakers’ L2 English <p>The goal of English pronunciation teaching has shifted from native-likeness to intelligibility. Especially in EFL contexts, pushing learners to sound like L1 speakers is difficult to justify, whereas becoming intelligible is an easily justifiable, practical learning goal. However, EFL teachers often emphasize the sounds that are typically challenging for their learners, even though all sounds are not equally important for intelligibility. The present study is focussed on the extent to which segmental deviations can compromise intelligibility. Speech samples were elicited from teenaged L1 Finnish learners of English, demonstrating segmental deviations typical of the target group. To evaluate the gravity of segmental deviation, an intelligibility test was arranged with L1 English listeners. Results suggest that the sounds under investigation can be ranked into groups based on how crucial they are for intelligibility. The ranking can help EFL teachers to prioritize the critical sounds over those that are unlikely to compromise intelligibility.</p> Elina Tergujeff Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 307 324 10.30661/afinlavk.113491 Tiedonalan kielen rakentuminen yläkoulun fysiikan oppitunnilla <p>This article focuses on social and linguistic practices in lower secondary school physics lessons. Using nexus analysis as the theoretical and methodological framework, the study seeks to answer two research questions: how disciplinary language is structured in texts and in classroom interaction and how students participate in disciplinary literacy practices with different linguistic resources. The data consists of texts (N=222), audio recordings (3 hours) and ethnographic field work data (36 hours). The analysis shows that disciplinary language in physics lessons is structured in multimodal manner and students’ engagement in classroom interaction is challenged by the social and linguistic practices used. This article suggests that students’ developing language skills and diverse linguistic repertoires in the classroom should be better considered in language-aware subject teaching.</p> Anne Tiermas Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 325 346 10.30661/afinlavk.114540 Oppimisympäristöt A1-kielen opetuksen mahdollistajina vuosiluokilla 1–2 <p>This article presents how teachers implement early foreign language (FL) teaching in first and second grades in Finnish primary schools. The purpose of the research was to gather information on how different kinds of learning environments are being used in FL teaching. The participants planned and conducted their own teaching development projects. Their reports of the projects were collected during spring 2020, and they also included information on how the teachers conducted remote teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Altogether 10 reports written by general class teachers and FL teachers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with a theory-oriented framework. The results show that teachers implement functional language teaching methods in various learning environments. Use of digital learning materials has become more essential during the remote teaching period. The study provides valuable insights into the use of learning environments in early foreign language teaching in Finland.</p> Tiia Vahtola Pekka Lintunen Minna Maijala Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 347 369 10.30661/afinlavk.114525 Ihmisarvioijien näkemyksiä suullisen kielitaidon automaattisesta arvioinnista, digitaalisesta arviointiprosessista sekä puhesuorituksista arvioitavista ulottuvuuksista <p>This study investigated human raters’ perceptions of automated assessment of oral language skills. The raters (n = 37) participated in three assessment rounds organized by the DigiTala research project using Moodle and Zoom. The raters assessed Finnish and Swedish learners’ speech samples using one holistic and five analytical rating scales created in the project. After the assessment, the raters responded to a questionnaire that included Likert-scale and open-ended questions. Numerical responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics, open responses with content analysis. The raters think that automated scoring could support human rating. The assessment rounds were carried out successfully. The selected dimensions proved to be essential parts of the speaking performances. The results will benefit those working on automated assessment and oral language assessment.</p> Anna von Zansen Heini Kallio Milla Sneck Mikko Kuronen Ari Huhta Raili Hildén Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 370 394 10.30661/afinlavk.114821 Eye gaze as a resource in handling trouble around mobile devices in classroom interaction <p>This paper offers an insight into how interaction is multimodally built during task-accomplishment around mobile devices in classroom interaction. More specifically, it investigates eye gaze as a resource in recruiting help and pursuing response from peers during interactional or task-related trouble sequences. The data come from video-recorded lessons at Finnish comprehensive schools where mobile devices are used for learning tasks. Drawing on multimodal conversation analysis, the article demonstrates that gaze is employed by pupils as one of the first resources to display and address trouble. Although tasks often require gaze to be directed at devices, it can be flexibly reoriented to peers when needed. The findings increase our understanding of functions of eye gaze and peer interaction in today’s technology-rich educational contexts.</p> Minttu Vänttinen Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 395 413 10.30661/afinlavk.114401 Social media as the fifth estate: Strategic organisation of German and Finnish counterspeech campaigns on Facebook <p>Social media, also called the fifth estate, form a new control body and may thus fulfil democratic functions. On the other hand, social media have enabled the proliferation of hateful debates in which, in the name of freedom of speech, previously tabooed content and language are becoming de-tabooed and accepted. As a response to fake news, direct and indirect hate speech, however, forms of organised counterspeech have emerged that counter the normalisation of aggressive and hateful speech. To influence the discourse in the comment sections of social media in terms of the fifth estate, counterspeech has to be visible also quantitatively. In this contrastive study, I analyse the activities of the German and Finnish Facebook groups of the network #iamhere international. Special attention goes to how the groups organise their activities strategically and how much the conventionalisation of digital genres influences the intensity and continuity of their activities.</p> Sabine Ylönen Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 414 433 10.30661/afinlavk.114457 Language, change and society: Perspectives from Finland <p>In this paper, we offer an overview of the various themes that emerged in the course of AFinLA 2021 50-year Anniversary Symposium Language, change and society. After a brief review of the dialogical nature of this hybrid event and the heightened sense of reflexivity this belongs, we divide the 19 contributions to this yearbook into four thematic groups: (1) accommodating reform in language and in education policy, (2) evolving practices in language learning and teaching, (3) technologically mediated teaching environments, and (4) the digitization of work and everyday life. Taken together, the different contributions give a good indication of how changes in society are reflected in applied language studies in Finland.</p> <p>Tämä artikkeli on katsaus AFinLAn vuoden 2021 50-vuotisjuhlasymposiumissa Kieli, muutos ja yhteiskunta esiintyneisiin teemoihin. Kuvaamme ensin lyhyesti hybridinä järjestettyä tapahtumaa sekä siihen liittyvää dialogisuutta ja reflektiivisyyttä. Sen jälkeen esittelemme vuosikirjan artikkelit jaettuna neljään temaattiseen ryhmään: 1) muutoksiin mukautuminen kielikoulutuspolitiikassa, 2) kielenoppimisen ja -opetuksen kehittyvät käytännöt, 3) teknologiavälitteiset opetusympäristöt ja 4) työn ja arjen digitalisoituminen. Yhdessä nämä artikkelit kertovat siitä, miten yhteiskunnan muutokset heijastuvat soveltavaan kielentutkimukseen Suomessa.</p> Tanja Seppälä Sirkku Lesonen Päivi Iikkanen Sigurd D'hondt Copyright (c) 2022 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 i xix 10.30661/afinlavk.122188