AFinLAn vuosikirja <p>Suomen soveltavan kielitieteen yhdistyksen (AFinLA) julkaisuja</p> <p>Publications de l'Association Finlandaise de Linguistique Appliquée (AFinLA)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>AFinLAn vuosikirja on&nbsp;29.2.2016 alkaen ottanut käyttöön Tieteellisten seurain valtuuskunnan vertaisarviointitunnuksen ja sitoutunut noudattamaan sen käytölle asetettuja ehtoja (ks.&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>). Tunnus merkitään myöntöpäivämäärän jälkeen julkaistuihin kokoomateoksiin sekä niihin sisältyviin artikkeleihin. Muutos ei vaikuta aiempiin julkaisuihin; ne on vertaisarvioitu samoja kriteerejä ja periaatteita noudattaen.&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/jjalkanen/VA_tunnus_tekstein_pieni.png" alt=""></p> Suomen soveltavan kielitieteen yhdistys AFinLA ry fi-FI AFinLAn vuosikirja 2343-2608 Esipuhe Maria Kok Henna Massinen Ilja Moshnikov Esa Penttilä Susanna Tavi Laura Tuomainen Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 10.30661/afinlavk.88055 Monimuotoinen kielimaisema ja kielellinen hyvinvointi <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This introduction article discusses language vitality and language diversity in connection with linguistic well-being, which were the main ideas reflected behind the theme of the AFinLA Autumn Symposium 2018, “Keeping languages alive”. Linguistic well-being is a new concept that addresses the issues related to language policy and linguistic practices within a speech community and how these impact the individual members of that community. Among the main factors behind linguistic well-being we find linguistic human rights, which emphasize, for example, the right for anyone to identify with one or more languages without being discriminated and the right for basic education in one’s own language. These rights are particularly linked to how endangered and minority languages are treated in the society and they can be actively promoted by language policy and education. However, linguistic well- being is not just a matter of minorities but it affects the whole community. The more diverse the language environment and linguistic landscape of a speech community is, the healthier and more affluent the whole community is – both its minority and majority language speakers.</p> </div> </div> </div> Maria Kok Esa Penttilä Henna Massinen Ilja Moshnikov Susanna Tavi Laura Tuomainen Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 i xvi 10.30661/afinlavk.86837 The two Norwegian official written standards, bokmål and nynorsk. Linguistic and ideological implications of national bilingualism and biliteracy. <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The long-lasting Norwegian history of official biliteracy with two equal written standards has attracted the interest of many scholars, both nationally and internationally. The present paper gives an overview of the historical development more or less similar to what is found in most Norwegian language histories, though with a different perspective. The paper discusses and seeks to answer the following questions: What was the ultimate aim of the language planners in the new independent nation state of Norway after 1814? Did they reach this aim? If not, what was achieved instead?</p> <p>The historical development of bokmål and nynorsk is explained as well as the present- day linguistic situation in Norway. Practical samples of both language forms are given, and language reforms, which have been important to both written standards, are discussed in chronological order.</p> </div> </div> </div> Tove Bull Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 1 18 10.30661/afinlavk.79335 Kveenien omakielisen lukemisen traditio ja sen merkitys kielen säilymiselle <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article examines the reading habits of the Kven minority in Norway. Historical sources note that Kvens were able to read in Finnish already in the 18th century. Up to the middle of the 19th century, most books printed in Finnish were religious texts written in Old Literary Finnish. During the Early Modern Finnish period (1820–1870), more secular literature appeared.</p> <p>Although the Kvens mostly read religious texts, they also read some secular literature. Kvens would gather to read religious books written in Old Literary Finnish in homes following a religious tradition of repetitive reading. It is quite probable that this reading practice had an impact on Kven language maintenance. Extensive reading refers to the reading of many different types of texts. In Finland, extensive reading expanded among common people during the Early Modern Finnish period. By contrast, extensive reading among Kvens was most often conducted in Norwegian.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leena Niiranen Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 19 41 10.30661/afinlavk.79324 Kielitietoisuuden käsite ja kieli-ideologiat helsinkiläisten peruskoulujen opetussuunnitelmadiskursseissa <p>This article critically explores the discourses surrounding the concept of <em>language awareness</em> in the school-specific curricula of basic schools in Helsinki. The school curricula have been designed at the process of reforming the Finnish national core curriculum for basic education and should be aligned with it. The newest Finnish national core curriculum for basic education came in to effect in 2016. <em>Language awareness</em> is one of the core concepts defining language education in the national curriculum and multilingual learning is an essential part of it. However, results of this study show that the school curricula do not always support multilingual outlook, but instead reflect monolingual practices. The most important theoretical tools in this study are the semiotic processes <em>iconization </em>and <em>erasure</em> defined by Judith T. Irivine and Susan Gal. The data for discourse analysis consists of 92 texts collected from the website <a href=""> </a>&nbsp;&nbsp;in August 2018. This article is unique in analyzing school-specific curricula.</p> Salla-Maaria Suuriniemi Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 42 59 10.30661/afinlavk.79512 Multilingualism in the Finnish preparatory classroom – does it exist? <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The study was conducted with the aim of exploring Finnish preparatory teachers’ attitudes to multilingualism and students’ native languages and to examine teachers’ rules related to the usage of languages in the classroom. The sample consisted of six teachers employed in state schools in the capital area and in Central Finland. Semi-structured interviews were used as the basic instrument. The data revealed that teachers understand the importance of first language development, and also have a positive attitude towards multilingualism in the classroom on a theoretical level. However, when it comes to practice, teachers place significant limitations on first language use in the classrooms and need more knowledge on how to move from monolingual to multilingual practices. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to pre- and in-service teacher preparation.</p> </div> </div> </div> Tatsiana Shestunova Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 60 76 10.30661/afinlavk.78157 Kieltenopetus vuosiluokilla 1–3: Miten oppilaat siihen suhtautuvat ja mitä tuloksia sillä saavutetaan puolen vuoden opiskelun aikana? <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>As of January 2020, all Finnish pupils are to start their foreign language studies in the first grade. This study examined the effects of early language teaching by comparing pupils in grades 1, 2 and 3. The pupils had started studying English in August 2017 and had all had roughly the same number of English lessons by the time of the study in early 2018. The study examined pupils’ attitudes towards English and studying English as well as how pupils use English in their free time. Pupils also self-assessed their English skills and completed vocabulary and text segmentation tasks. The results show that the pupils had an overall positive attitude towards English and language learning. Analyses of pupils’ language skills and extramural use of English revealed statistically significant differences between 1st, 2nd and 3rd graders. Findings and their possible explanations are discussed.</p> </div> </div> </div> Karoliina Inha Ari Huhta Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 77 100 10.30661/afinlavk.79340 Termien selittäminen multimodaalisena toimintana yleistajuisissa tietokirjoissa <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The article studies how visual images and their use in explaining field-specific terms can be analyzed with the concept of discourse patterns. When expounding and demonstrating the meaning of specialized terminology in popular non-fiction, different kinds of pictures are utilized to scaffold the reader-in-the-text’s understanding of the meanings of such field-specific terms. In the article, explanation sequences are analyzed as multimodal discourse patterns, where verbal text and images together produce knowledge-constructing interaction. Diverse resources of presenting information (e.g. genre features of written text, coding orientations of visual image) construct the interactive functions of a multimodal text. For example, a technologically oriented image can realize both functions in the introduction–description pattern whereas an image depicting a particular situation can function as an exemplification in the introduction–exemplification pattern. The analysis of discourse patterns aims to examine the ways of representing conceptual knowledge in research popularizations.</p> </div> </div> </div> Henri Satokangas Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 101 119 10.30661/afinlavk.79339 Hashtagit merkityksien rakentajina suomenkielisissä Instagram-päivityksissä <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This article examines ways in which Finnish Instagram users employ hashtags in their posts. Hashtags are not used only to link posts with the same tag together but also to guide readers ́ interpretations. The research material consists of 1,500 Instagram posts by private Instagram users with open accounts who have written their updates mainly in Finnish language. Findings indicate that the Finnish users employ hashtags 1) as topic tags, to highlight the subject and theme of the post; 2) as additions, to provide the necessary information for the interpretation of the post; and 3) as evaluative meta comments regarding the emotions connected with the post, the values of the writer and the tone of the post. The study has implications for the understanding of everyday construction of meaning in social media.</p> </div> </div> </div> Jutta Rosenberg Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 120 134 10.30661/afinlavk.78171 Miten kääntäjäkoulutus voi tukea kielenelvytystä? <p>In this paper, translator training is discussed as a form of language revitalisation. Translation has the potential to stimulate the development of an underused language, but this potential is often accompanied by a risk of unwanted source-language influence. In translator training, minority language translators learn to control this influence and critically assess their own translation solutions. If translator training succeeds in empowering speakers of an endangered language to translate, and to translate with an awareness of how their translations might influence the development of the minority language, it can justly be considered language policy <em>par excellence</em>.</p> Päivi Kuusi Copyright (c) 2019 AFinLAn vuosikirja 2019-12-09 2019-12-09 136 153 10.30661/afinlavk.83330