Pure and compensated efficiency of Swedish dairy farms
The compensatory effect of environmental subsidies for agri-environmental output constraints was evaluated through a comparative analysis observing the ‘pure’ efficiency, as a benchmark for prevailing production conditions, and the ‘compensated’ efficiency, as a proxy indicator of the compensation. An unbalanced data panel covering 3578 Swedish dairy farms in the period 2002-2012 was used. The analysis showed that in the study period, environmental farm support decreased the differences in farm revenue generated by agri-environmental output constraints in Sweden. However, the environmental support distribution did not succeed in meeting regional needs, so difficulties in farmers’ ability to generate output in southern and central forest and valley areas of Sweden were visible. Furthermore, the environmental agricultural support had only a partial subsidisation effect on ‘green’ farm management practices, with full compensation being achieved for organic and capital-extensive farming, whereas low livestock density farming was not sufficiently compensated. This analysis reveals incentives with policy implications for farm economic performance and provides direct input to future policy recommendations for environmental support allocation.