Agricultural and Food Science 2018-05-21T09:06:11+03:00 Tuula Puhakainen Open Journal Systems <p>Agricultural and Food Science (AFSci) publishes original research reports on agriculture and food research in relation to primary production in boreal agriculture. Acceptable papers must be of international interest and have a northern dimension. We especially welcome papers related to agriculture in Boreal and Baltic Sea Region.</p> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> The effect of the type of preparation on the deposit of copper while spraying the winter oilseed rape 2018-05-21T09:06:11+03:00 Katarzyna Dereń Antoni Szewczyk Tomasz Robert Sekutowski Monika Kowalska-Góralska <p>The aim of the research was to determine the copper deposit volume on winter oilseed rape in three development phase (according to the BBCH scale: 12, 14 and 16). The experiment was performed in triplicate at the spraying speed of 0.86 m s<sup>-1</sup>. Two working fluids were used: foliar fertilizer Mikrovit Copper 80 and a nanocopper preparation, at the dose of 160 g Cu ha<sup>-1</sup>. The deposition treatment of the plants was conducted in the spraying chamber ‘Aporo1’ at two pressures (0.20 and 0.28 MPa), using two different types of flat fan nozzles. The dried rape plants were mineralized, and then, in order to determine the deposit, the Cu element concentration was measured using the spectrometer. The largest deposit of copper was obtained using the foliar fertilizer Mikrovit Copper 80 and using a double flat fan nozzle DF 120-02. The statistical analysis of the results of the study showed a significant effect of the type of liquid used on the value of copper deposit on winter oilseed rape plants.</p> 2018-03-27T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nordic research infrastructures for plant phenotyping 2018-05-21T09:06:11+03:00 Erik Alexandersson Markku Keinänen Aakash Chawade Kristiina Himanen <p>Plant phenomics refers to the systematic study of plant phenotypes. Together with closely monitored, controlled climates, it provides an essential component for the integrated analysis of genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Currently, several plant growth and phenotyping facilities are under establishment globally, and numerous facilities are already in use. Alongside the development of the research infrastructures, several national and international networks have been established to support shared use of the new methodology. In this review, an overview is given of the Nordic plant phenotyping and climate control facilities. Since many areas of phenomics such as sensor-based phenotyping, image analysis and data standards are still developing, promotion of educational and networking activities is especially important. These facilities and networks will be instrumental in tackling plant breeding and plant protection challenges. They will also provide possibilities to study wild species and their ecological interactions under changing Nordic climate conditions.</p> 2018-03-27T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Method for comparing current versus recommended housing conditions in dairy cattle production 2018-05-21T09:06:10+03:00 Marek Gaworski Michał Boćkowski <p>The objective of the study was to propose a method to assess how well some housing conditions in barns meet national standards and recommendations. The key element of the method was to investigate the index of technical standards fulfilment (ITSF), which shows differences between current housing conditions created by barn facilities and some standards. The lower differences are expressed by higher ITSF value, whereas the index values range from 0 to 1. Data collected in 38 dairy farms (with tie-stall and freestall housing systems) were used for the ITSF index analyses. The ITSF index values for the two compared housing systems were calculated for measurements carried out in four zones in each barn: lying, social, feeding and milking areas. There were higher average ITSF index values for the freestall system than for the tie-stall housing system across all investigated zones included in the barns. Investigations can support farmers to improve some conditions of dairy production in the barns including consciousness of some standards on dairy facilities and cow comfort.</p> 2018-03-27T17:09:08+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Alternative finishing strategies for Holstein-Friesian bulls slaughtered at 15 months of age 2018-05-21T09:06:10+03:00 Brian Murphy Alan K Kelly Robert Prendiville <p>The aim was to establish the optimum finishing strategy (FS) for dairy bulls slaughtered at 15 months. Sixty spring-born calves were assigned to one of four FS. The FS were split into two phases; pasture (PAS) from mid-August to housing (P1) and finished indoors on concentrates ad libitum plus straw for 209 d (P2). Treatment 1 (T1) was offered PAS in P1 and 800 g kg<sup>-1</sup> barley (BAR), 140 g kg<sup>-1</sup> soya bean meal (SBM), 40 g kg<sup>-1</sup> molasses and 20 g kg<sup>-1</sup> minerals (B) in P2. Treatments 2 (T2) and 3 (T3) were offered 3 kg dry matter (DM) of B per head daily at PAS. In P2, T2 was offered B while T3 was offered 400 g kg<sup>-1</sup> BAR, 400 g kg<sup>-1</sup> maize meal, 140 g kg<sup>-1</sup> SBM, 40 g kg<sup>-1</sup> molasses and 20 g kg<sup>-1</sup> minerals (BM). In P1 treatment 4 (T4) was offered 3 kg DM of BM per head daily at PAS and 750 g kg<sup>-1</sup> BAR, 140 g kg<sup>-1</sup> SBM, 50 g kg<sup>-1</sup> rumen protected fat, 40 g kg<sup>-1</sup> molasses and 20 g kg<sup>-1</sup> minerals in P2. Finishing strategy did not affect lifetime average daily gain or carcass conformation. Fat score tended (<em>p</em>=0.0514) to be greater for T3 than T1 and T4.</p> 2018-03-28T08:00:08+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dynamics of selenium uptake and metabolism of organic selenium species in the leaves and seeds of Brassica napus L. 2018-05-21T09:06:08+03:00 Mervi M Seppänen Nashmin Ebrahimi Juha Kontturi Helinä Hartikainen Isabel Lopez Heras Carmen Cámara Yolanda Madrid <p>The essential micronutrient selenium (Se) is retained better in animal and human tissues in its organic forms while nonprotein selenoamino acids, such as selenomethylselenocysteine (SeMetSeCys), are considered as functional organic Se species. We studied the ability of oilseed rape Brassica napus to metabolize inorganic selenate/selenite (SeVI/SeIV) into various organic Se species, including SeMetSeCys. At 14 d after the inorganic Se application, 33% of the Se had accumulated as selenomethionine (SeMet) and 60% as SeVI, whereas no SeMetSeCys was detected. SeMet was the main organic Se species (53−94%) in seeds. Brassica napus selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) protein sequence revealed a substitution typical of nonaccumulators explaining the low SeMetSeCys accumulation. Brassica napus absorbs rapidly inorganic Se and converts it into organic Se forms, mainly SeMet, that are suitable for augmenting animal feed and thereby supplementing the human food chain in Se-deficient countries. In contrast, Se biofortification did not result in accumulation of the more valuable SeMetSeCys.</p> 2018-03-29T08:54:13+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Interspecific competition changes photosynthetic and oxidative stress response of barley and barnyard grass to elevated CO2 and temperature 2018-05-21T09:06:07+03:00 Irena Januskaitiene Jūratė Žaltauskaitė Austra Dikšaitytė Gintarė Sujetovienė Diana Miškelytė Giedrė Kacienė Sandra Sakalauskienė Jurga Miliauskienė Romualdas Juknys <p>This work focuses on the investigation of competition interaction between C3 crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and C4 weed barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) at 2 times higher than ambient [CO2] and +4 0C higher ambient temperature climate conditions. It was hypothesized that interspecific competition will change the response of the investigated plants to increased [CO2] and temperature. The obtained results showed that in the current climate conditions, a higher biomass and photosynthetic rate and a lower antioxidant activity were detected for barley grown under interspecific competition effect. While in the warmed climate and under competition conditions opposite results were detected: a higher water use efficiency, a higher photosynthetic performance, a lower dissipated energy flux and a lower antioxidant enzymes activity were detected for barnyard grass plants. This study highlights that in the future climate conditions, barnyard grass will become more efficient in performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and it will suffer from lower oxidative stress caused by interspecific competition as compared to barley.</p> 2018-03-30T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Yield responses to P fertilisation of onion (Allium cepa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group L.) in Finland 2018-05-21T09:06:09+03:00 Risto Uusitalo Terhi Suojala-Ahlfors Pirjo Kivijärvi Timo Hurme <p>Finnish data on vegetable crops’ yield responses to phosphorus (P) applications are scarce, but P is usually applied in quantities that meet the crop demand with wide safety margins. We determined yield responses to P fertilisation of onion and cabbage at three sites in 3-year field trials. Only on a sandy loam with low P status did annual P applications give statistically significant yield increases, 7% and 20% over the P-unfertilised treatment for onion and cabbage, respectively. The maximum P rate allowed by national regulation for this soil is 80 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, but P rates of 10–12 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> were sufficient to produce 97% of the yield maxima. The results strongly suggest that the P demand of the studied vegetables is smaller than previously thought also in a boreal climate. Critical soil test P concentrations for vegetables should be established to avoid unnecessary build-up of soil P that may be uneconomical and elevate the risk for P losses to waterways. However, too few data exist for this at present.</p> 2018-03-28T09:52:28+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative studies about fungal colonization and deoxynivalenol translocation in barley plants inoculated at the base with Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium pseudograminearum 2018-05-21T09:06:06+03:00 Francesco Pecoraro Marta Giannini Giovanni Beccari Lorenzo Covarelli Gianfranco Filippini Annamaria Pisi Paola Nipoti Antonio Prodi <p><em>Fusarium</em> crown rot (FCR), an important disease of wheat and barley, is mainly caused by <em>Fusarium graminearum</em>, <em>F. culmorum</em> and <em>F. pseudograminearum</em>, which are also responsible for mycotoxin production. This is the first comparative investigation of their colonization on barley plants after stem base inoculation. At plant maturity, FCR symptoms were visually evaluated, fungal biomass was quantified by Real-Time quantitative PCR and deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the inoculated strains caused the typical FCR necrotic symptoms. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that <em>F. graminearum</em> and <em>F. culmorum</em> were present in the head tissues, while <em>F. pseudograminearum</em> colonized only up to the area including the second node of the stem. Conversely, DON was detected up to the head for all the three species. This study shows that, as already demonstrated in previous research for wheat, DON may be detected up to the head as a consequence of stem base infection by the three FCR agents</p> 2018-03-30T09:13:51+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Acknowledgements 2018-05-21T09:06:08+03:00 Tuula Puhakainen <p>Agricultural and Food Science expresses its sincere thanks to the following referees for their constructive critical<br>reviews of one or more manuscripts during the year 2017.</p> 2018-03-29T13:13:32+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##