Agricultural and Food Science <p>Agricultural and Food Science (AFSci) publishes original research reports on agriculture and food research in relation to primary production in boreal agriculture. Acceptable papers must be of international interest and have a northern dimension. We especially welcome papers related to agriculture in Boreal and Baltic Sea Region.</p> The Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland en-US Agricultural and Food Science 1459-6067 <p>Authors who publish with Agricultural and Food Science agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Any part of the&nbsp;Agricultural and Food Science&nbsp;may be referred to assuming the Author, The Article, Publication with Volume and Number plus URL&nbsp;for the references have been provided.</li> </ol> Impacts of green manure on crop yield, nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide emissions in sandy and clay soil lysimeters <p>We compared wheat yield, losses of nitrogen (N) in leaching, and gaseous losses as nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O) in silt and sand soil lysimeters. The studied cultivation systems were based on mineral fertilizer or mineral fertilizer together with clover green manure mulched at three different time points (August, October or May) before sowing of the main crop (either winter or spring wheat). Replacing 50–60% of mineral fertilizer N with green manure from a mixture of three clover species did not compromise the crop yield of winter or spring wheat. The results suggest that mulching of the green manure in the spring succeeding its sowing is the most beneficial practice with respect to environmental impacts. Total N leaching was higher from sandy soil than from silt loam whereas emissions of N<sub>2</sub>O were higher from the silt soil. Residual N from the clover biomass did not lead to an increase in leaching losses of N during the growing season or one year from the harvest. However, the residual N can be a source of high N<sub>2</sub>O emissions during the winter period in boreal climatic conditions.</p> Kristiina Regina Hannu Känkänen Pooja Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Kristiina Regina, Hannu Känkänen, Pooja Singh 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 30 2 53–62 53–62 10.23986/afsci.99202 Apparent and standardised ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids in wheat, soybean meal and rapeseed meal for broilers <p>The apparent (AID) and(SID) ileal amino acid digestibilities in wheat, soybean meal, and rapeseed meal were determined with Ross 308 broiler chicken (n = 64) using the slaughter technique with chromium mordanted straw as an indigestible marker. The recovery of endogenous amino acids at the distal ileum was determined with a protein-free diet and it was used to calculate the SID digestibilities of the studied feed ingredients. The mean amino acid AID and SID were higher in soybean meal and wheat than in rapeseed meal (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). The mean amino acid flow measured from the ileum was the highest in rapeseed meal, intermediate in soybean meal, and the lowest in wheat (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). The main amino acids in the basal endogenous secretion were aspartic and glutamic acid and the lowest ones present were methionine and histidine (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). The difference between amino acid AID and SID values varied among ingredients and was higher in wheat than in soybean meal and rapeseed meal (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05). </p> Sini Perttilä Taina Jalava Marketta Rinne Gabriel Da Silva Viana Jarmo Valaja Copyright (c) 2021 Sini Perttilä, Taina Jalava, Marketta Rinne, Gabriel Da Silva Viana, Jarmo Valaja 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 30 2 63–73 63–73 10.23986/afsci.94993 A comparison of grass silages harvested at first, second and third cut on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows <p>The objective of this study was to compare the milk production potential of first, second and third harvest of grass silage from the same sward in Northern latitudes. Three change-over design dairy cow feeding experiments were conducted during different years which differed markedly in weather conditions. The silages were supplemented with a cereal based The objective of this study was to compare the milk production potential of subsequent first, second and third cuts of grass silage from the same sward in Northern latitudes. Three change-over design dairy cow feeding experiments were conducted during different years which differed markedly in weather conditions. The silages were supplemented with a cereal based concentrate (average concentrate proportion 431 g kg<sup>-1</sup> diet dry matter). Feed intake and milk production was highest with first-cut and lowest with third-cut silage. The energy corrected milk yields averaged over three experiments were 35.0, 33.2 and 31.9 kg d<sup>-1</sup> for first, second and third harvest silages, respectively. Respective dry matter intakes were 23.1, 21.9 and 20.7 kg d<sup>-1</sup>. Compared to analysed feed values, the average intake of third-cut silages was lower than expected. Due to the high risk of low intake potential of third-cut silages, they are not recommended for cows in early lactation if there are other silages available.</p> Auvo Sairanen Sari Kajava Annu Palmio Marketta Rinne Copyright (c) 2021 Auvo Sairanen, Sari Kajava, Annu Palmio, Marketta Rinne 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 30 2 74–84 74–84 10.23986/afsci.101833 Effect of daily light integral treatments on free amino acids and sugars contributing flavor and acrylamide formation in potato tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. <p>To study the effect of photoperiodic conditions on the chemical composition of potato tubers, seven cultivars, grown under controlled conditions, were evaluated for the content of free amino acids (FAA) and sugars. The differences in these compounds may have an effect on the susceptibility of acrylamide formation during potato processing as well as on the flavor profile of potato products. Tubers were produced in growth chambers under two artificially induced photoperiods; 8 h light and 15 h light per day, resulting in conditions with two different daily light integral (DLI) levels. The photoperiodic treatments influenced the total FAA and free sugar contents and composition. Of the analyzed 19 FAAs, the concentrations of 14 FAAs were significantly lower in tubers exposed to the 15 h light period compared to 8 h light, whereas the glucose content was significantly higher. The total FAA concentrations were 15–46% lower and the glucose concentrations 6–64% higher in the seven cultivars exposed to the 15 h light conditions than in those grown in 8 h light. </p> Minna Rotola-Pukkila Anna-Liisa Välimaa Jukka-Pekka Suomela Baoru Yang Saila Karhu Anu Hopia Copyright (c) 2021 Minna Rotola-Pukkila, Anna-Liisa Välimaa, Jukka-Pekka Suomela, Baoru Yang, Saila Karhu, Anu Hopia 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 30 2 85–95 85–95 10.23986/afsci.107898 Revision of the total nitrogen and phosphorus content in a cattle manure-based organic fertiliser in North-West Russia <p>This study aimed to verify the applicability of a mass balance method for estimating nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in the solid organic fertiliser produced from cattle manure in North-West Russia. The study compared the relevant established norms in Russia, the data calculated by the mass balance method, and the average experimental data on N and P content in cattle manure (ex-housing) and the organic fertilizer ready to use from the selected cattle-breeding complex with 1250 heads and a manure output of 70 t day<sup>-1</sup>. Three animal categories were considered. The difference between the calculated and experimental data was 10% maximum but the experimental data and the established norms differed by above 15%. This proves the demand to revise the norms in the Russian regulatory documents to improve the accuracy of fertiliser application rates and the estimation of agricultural land required. Even an increase of 10% in the nutrient content of the organic fertiliser results in an increase in the required agricultural land from 451 to 526 ha for spreading the organic fertiliser from the 1250 heads of cattle at the selected farm.</p> Ekaterina Shalavina Aleksandr Briukhanov Sari Luostarinen Alexey Trifanov Natalia Kozlova Eduard Vasilev Igor Subbotin Copyright (c) 2021 Ekaterina Shalavina, Aleksandr Briukhanov, Sari Luostarinen, Alexey Trifanov, Natalia Kozlova, Eduard Vasilev, Igor Subbotin 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 30 2 44–52 44–52 10.23986/afsci.99191