Agricultural and Food Science <p>Agricultural and Food Science (AFSci) publishes original research reports on agriculture and food research in relation to primary production in boreal agriculture. Acceptable papers must be of international interest and have a northern dimension. We especially welcome papers related to agriculture in Boreal and Baltic Sea Region.</p> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> The Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland en-US Agricultural and Food Science 1459-6067 Authors who publish with Agricultural and Food Science agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Any part of the Agricultural and Food Science may be referred to assuming the Author, The Article, Publication with Volume and Number plus URL for the references have been provided.</li></ol> Developing a genetic evaluation system for milk traits in Russian black and white dairy cattle <p>Mixed linear models have been applied for predicting breeding values of dairy cattle in most of the developed countries since the 1980s. However, the Russian Federation is still using the old contemporary comparison method. The objective of our study was to develop a best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) for an animal model of breeding values for the Leningrad region. We tested both a first-lactation model (FLM) and a multi-lactation repeatability model (MLM). The data included milk records of 206 114 cows from 49 herds. Estimated heritabilities from FLM were 0.24, 0.20, and 0.20 for milk, protein, and fat yields, respectively, and 0.18, 0.19, and 0.20 from MLM. Repeatabilities were 0.34 for milk yield and 0.31 for both fat and protein yields. Genetic trends were similar for both models (FLM vs MLM): 59 vs 56 kg year<sup>-1</sup> for milk, 1.90 vs 1.84 kg year<sup>-1</sup> for fat, and 1.67 vs 1.62 kg year<sup>-1</sup> for protein yield during 2000–2016. Based on the difference between the genetic trends in FLM and MLM, the applied BLUP method passed the validation method I by Interbull.</p> Andrei Andreevich Kudinov Jarmo Juga Esa A. Mäntysaari Ismo Strandén Ekaterina I. Saksa Michael G. Smaragdov Pekka Uimari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 27 2 85–95 85–95 10.23986/afsci.69772 The Assessing the genetic differentiation of Holstein cattle herds in the Leningrad region using Fst statistics <p>Holstein bulls and semen have been imported to Russia from Western countries since the 1970s. The objective of our study was to examine the effect of this introgression on genetic diversity between various commercial Holstein herds in the Leningrad region. A total of 803 Holstein cows from 13 herds were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 v.2 array. The pairwise Hudson’s estimator of F<sub>st</sub> values between 13 herds varied from 0.002 to 0.015, which is less than values usually obtained between dairy cattle breeds (&gt; 0.1). The mean of these pairwise F<sub>st</sub> values revealed differences between herds depending, mainly, on the proportion of common sires shared between the herds. In addition, we investigated the cause of negative F<sub>st</sub> values. Based on our results, these negative values could be interpreted as an excess of within-herd genetic diversity over the between-herds genetic diversity. Our results show that introgressions of Holstein genes into Russian Black and White cattle of the Leningrad region have created genetic separation between herds similar with those for Jersey cows in USA, Australia and New Zealand.</p> Michael Grigorievich Smaragdov Andrei Andreivich Kudinov Pekka Uimari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-25 2018-06-25 27 2 96–101 96–101 10.23986/afsci.69777 Variety, time of harvest and conditions during growing season have impact on red clover isoflavone content <p>Red clover (<em>Trifolium pratense</em> L.) is the predominant legume used in northern European agriculture. Official red clover variety trials are conducted by Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke) to determine the value of field crop varieties. The trials used for the current analysis were conducted in Luke units in southern Finland (Mikkeli) and northern Finland (Ruukki) in two consecutive years. Plant samples for isoflavone analyses were collected from four varieties grown as four replicates and harvested twice during both growing seasons. The four main isoflavones biochanin A, genistein, daidzein and formononetin were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total phytoestrogen content in the varieties varied in the range of 11.2−14.8 mg g<sup>-1</sup> dry matter (DM). The variety and the time of harvest had most effect on the isoflavone, especially formononetin, contents of red clover. A more northern growing area and challenging weather conditions were associated with increased isoflavone concentrations.</p> Eeva Arja Mustonen Mikko Tuori Päivi Kurki Mika Isolahti Juhani Taponen Aila Vanhatalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 27 2 102–109 102–109 10.23986/afsci.69781 Functional divergence effects of intercropped faba bean and maize in organic production for forage increase mineral contents and reduces leaf spots <p>Multispecies cropping systems contribute to sustainable agriculture with multiple ecosystem services. Effects of intercropping of organically managed maize and faba beans to silage on acquisition of mineral nutrients in shoots of both crops and on leaf spot progression in faba beans were investigated. Three field experiments were performed with maize and faba bean intercropped or grown separately. Intercropping increased shoot concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Na, S and B in faba bean, and shoot concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mo in maize. Thus, the ecological complementary effects enhance feed quality. Disease severity index (DSI) of leaf spots in faba beans was reduced by intercropping by 42–57%, partly due to an increased Cu acquisition at sites where the Cu availability was low. There was a significant negative linear relationship between Cu concentration in shoots and DSI of leaf spots. Total uptake of mineral nutrients per land area was greater in the intercropping system with a total LER &gt; 1 for all mineral nutrients, except for P, Ca and Mn at one of the sites. Increased nutrient use efficiency, due to facilitative uptake from the soil, and the production of crops with higher contents of minerals compared with monocropping, are benefits of intercropped maize and faba beans.</p> Eva Stoltz Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar Elisabet Nadeau ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 27 2 110–123 110–123 10.23986/afsci.66541 Effects of reducing EU agricultural support payments on production and farm income in Finland <p>The budget for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU, and thus EU agricultural support payments, may be reduced from 2021. In this study we analyse the effects this may have in Finland using an economic model of Finnish agriculture accounting for structural changes in the dairy and beef sectors. Reducing the CAP budget by 20% would affect farm incomes by 20–25% in southern Finland while central and northern parts of the country, which are dependent on national payments coupled to dairy and beef production, would be less affected. Our results show that the milk and beef sectors throughout the country are still dependent on support payments coupled to production due to reduced real prices for agricultural products. Current policy schemes for southern Finland include coupled CAP payments but do not allow national payments. Any cuts in the CAP budget have significantly more negative effects in southern Finland compared to other regions.</p> Heikki Sakari Lehtonen Jyrki Sakari Niemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 27 2 124–137 124–137 10.23986/afsci.67673 Ramularia collo-cygni: a new pathogen spreading in barley fields in Estonia <p>Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) caused by the fungus <em>Ramularia collo-cygni</em> (<em>Rcc</em>) is affecting barley fields throughout temperate regions worldwide. The first finding of RLS in Estonia was reported on spring barley in 2012 and since then the area of RLS infection has been widening in Estonia. This work has been carried out to monitor the natural infection of <em>Rcc</em> in two winter barley cultivars and to follow artificial fungal infection by a PCR-based assay. Using our approach, we could detect presence of the fungal pathogen in barley leaves before the appearance of disease symptoms at early growth stages. Response of two tested cultivars to <em>Rcc</em> infection in the field conditions was different, showing genotype-environment interaction in the development and spreading of <em>Rcc</em>. In harvested grain samples at the end of growing season no <em>Rcc</em> infection was detected. The role of external inoculum, <em>Rcc</em> conidia transmitted from various grasses (<em>Poaceae</em>) growing next to crop fields, is discussed. These results provide further insight into the epidemiology of <em>Rcc</em>.</p> Andres Mäe Pille Sooväli Lee Põllumaa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-26 2018-06-26 27 2 138–145 138–145 10.23986/afsci.69116