Agricultural and Food Science <p>Agricultural and Food Science (AFSci) publishes original research reports on agriculture and food research in relation to primary production in boreal agriculture. Acceptable papers must be of international interest and have a northern dimension. We especially welcome papers related to agriculture in Boreal and Baltic Sea Region.</p> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> The Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland en-US Agricultural and Food Science 1459-6067 Authors who publish with Agricultural and Food Science agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Any part of the Agricultural and Food Science may be referred to assuming the Author, The Article, Publication with Volume and Number plus URL for the references have been provided.</li></ol> The effect of meat and bone meal (MBM) on the nitrogen and phosphorus content and pH of soil <p>A field experiment was conducted in 2011 – 2013 in Poland. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increasing doses of meat and bone meal (MBM) on the mineral nitrogen (N<sub>min</sub>) and available phosphorus (P) content of soil and the soil pH. Changes in the content of NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-N, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>-N and available P in soil were affected by MBM dose, experiment duration, weather conditions and crop species. Soil amended with MBM was more abundant in mineral N and available P. The lowest concentration of NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>-N and the highest concentration of NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-N were noted in the first year of the study, because the nitrification process requires a longer time. MBM had no influence on the accumulation of N<sub>min</sub> in soil, whereas the concentration of available P increased significantly throughout the experiment. The soil pH decreased with increasing MBM doses. After the application of the highest MBM doses soil pH classification was changed from neutral to slightly acidic.</p> Anna Nogalska Sławomir Józef Krzebietke Marta Zalewska Zenon Nogalski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 26 4 181–187 181–187 10.23986/afsci.64207 Effect of wood ash and crushed rock soil amendments on red clover growth and dinitrogen fixation <p>The fertiliser effect of adding wood ash or crushed rock to a low-fertility soil, compared with an unamended control, was assessed in a pot experiment with a perennial ryegrass-red clover mixture. Dinitrogen (N<sub>2</sub>) fixation by the clover and translocation of fixed N to the grass were determined using <sup>15</sup>N natural abundance. The wood ash produced the highest accumulated clover biomass over two cuts, followed by the crushed rock. Chemical analyses suggested that the increase was due to K supply by the amendments. The wood ash also led to larger amounts of fixed N compared with the control. However, N<sub>2</sub> fixation was not increased as much as biomass amount, leading to dilution of plant N. There were minor or no treatment effects on mineralisation from soil N pools. This indicates that good-quality wood ash can be successfully used as a multi-element soil amendment to enhance clover growth on low-fertility soils.</p> A Sigrun Dahlin Maria Stenberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 26 4 188–197 188–197 10.23986/afsci.63739 Changes in rheological properties of Edam-type cheese during ripening <p>Understanding the parameters affecting the rheological characteristics of cheese enables better regulation and monitoring of cheese consistency and the production of cheese with desired quality. The objectives of this research were to define the linear viscoelastic rheological properties of large scale production Edam-type cheese, to characterize the effect of ripening (from three days to 10 weeks) and to determine the effect of cheese composition and cheese milk on the rheological properties of Edam-type cheese. Changes in the viscoelastic properties were more noticeable in the first four weeks of the ripening period and thereafter stabilized. Highest significant correlations for G’ and G’’ observed with the ratio of cheese moisture plus fat to protein. The compositional parameters of cheese related to rheological properties (moisture, moisture in the non-fat substance (MNFS) and moisture to protein ratio) significantly correlated with vat milk protein content and rennet coagulation properties.</p> Ivi Jõudu Merike Henno Tanel Kaart Andre Veskioja Meelis Ots ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 26 4 198–206 198–206 10.23986/afsci.63132 Assessing the willingness of non-members to invest in new financial products in agricultural producer cooperatives: A choice experiment <p>The sourcing of outside investment capital from non-members has motivated the emergence of innovative cooperative structures, but the literature on these new organizational forms omits the perspective of an outside investor. This paper reports a study that applied a choice experiment method in a novel setting to increase understanding of the preferences of investors in agricultural firms. A large questionnaire dataset consisting of 845 financially literate subjects enabled testing of the form in which residual and control rights provide incentives for non-producer investors to invest in agricultural firms. The choice experiment data were analyzed using a latent class model. The results demonstrate that the subjects were interested in the currently hypothetical, new types of investment instruments in agricultural producer cooperatives. Three investor classes were distinguished based on the preferences: return-seeking, ownership-oriented and risk-averse investors. Who controls the firm appears to be irrelevant concerning willingness to invest, while the rural ties of the respondent are positively related to the preference for voting rights.</p> Eeva Alho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 26 4 207–222 207–222 10.23986/afsci.64945 Government spending under alternative yield risk management schemes in Finland <p>The need for efficient risk management has increased in agriculture, as farmers are facing greater risks, for instance, due to climate change, price liberalisation and new plant diseases. The development of yield insurances is ongoing in many EU member countries. In Finland, the northernmost EU country, a government-financed crop damage compensation (CDC) scheme has been abolished. In this study, we analysed how the government´s expenditure would change due to the policy shift and provide insight into the tails of the loss distribution of a crop insurance scheme based on individual farm yields. According to a stochastic simulation model, the mean expenditures for the government as well as the variability in expenditure between years are expected to be lower as a result of the policy shift. The results obtained support the government’s decision to terminate the CDC scheme.</p> Petri Liesivaara Miranda Meuwissen Sami Myyrä ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 26 4 223–232 223–232 10.23986/afsci.65247 A modified delta yield approach for estimation of economic optimal nitrogen rate (EONR) for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) <p>A Swedish field trial database was mined for information on economic optimal nitrogen rate (EONR). A total of 100 trials with wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) and 47 trials with barley (<em>Hordeum vulgare</em> L.) were used to parameterise prediction models for EONR based on yields in plots with no nitrogen (N) fertilisation, intended to reflect N mineralisation, and yields in plots with a high N rate, aimed as a proxy variable for yield potential, i.e. a modification of the delta yield (∆Y) approach. When the prediction models were applied to new sites and years, predictions had mean absolute error (MAE) = 10 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> for wheat and = 9 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> for barley. Performing modified ∆Y experiments can complement current N fertilisation trials with many rates, in order to improve the spatial representation of EONR estimations. Moreover, ∆Y experiments can potentially be used for in-season EONR estimation, in which case the accuracy of the EONR predictions depends also on the uncertainty in yield predictions made at the time of supplementary fertilisation.</p> Kristin Piikki Bo Stenberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-27 2017-12-27 26 4 233–241 233–241 10.23986/afsci.63668