Agricultural and Food Science <p>Agricultural and Food Science (AFSci) publishes original research reports on agriculture and food research in relation to primary production in boreal agriculture. Acceptable papers must be of international interest and have a northern dimension. We especially welcome papers related to agriculture in Boreal and Baltic Sea Region.</p> The Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland en-US Agricultural and Food Science 1459-6067 <p>Authors who publish with Agricultural and Food Science agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Any part of the&nbsp;Agricultural and Food Science&nbsp;may be referred to assuming the Author, The Article, Publication with Volume and Number plus URL&nbsp;for the references have been provided.</li> </ol> Methane production inventory between 1960–2020 in the Finnish dairy sector and the future mitigation scenarios <p>Enteric methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) represents about half of the climatic footprint of milk production in Finland. Methane is generated from the surplus hydrogen produced during the anaerobic feed digestion process in the rumen. Methane intensity per liter of energy corrected milk (g CH<sub>4</sub> kg<sup>-1</sup> ECM) is a function of the number of cows, milk yield (MY), replacement rate (RR), and the diet composition. This study aimed to model and report the inventory of CH<sub>4</sub> from milk production in Finland between 1960 and 2020. Furthermore, we report the potential future scenarios of CH<sub>4</sub> mitigation strategies based on the further development in MY and feed efficiency with constant or changing BW of cows. The diet composition of cattle was formulated for 5-year periods according to feed consumption statistics (ProAgria 2021) and the current metabolizable energy (ME) requirements for dairy cattle (Luke 2021a). The CH4 production from cattle was simulated using the formulated diets with the Nordic dairy cow model Karoline. The future CH<sub>4</sub> mitigation scenarios of increased MY and improved feed efficiency were simulated using Lypsikki® dairy farm model. During the inventory period, the number of cows (1000) decreased from 1150 to less than 258, and MY increased three-fold. The total milk and CH<sub>4</sub> production peaked in 1965 being 3650 and 110 million kg per year and decreased to 2300 and 48 million kg per year in 2020, respectively.</p> <p>Consequently, decreased number of cows and increased MY reduced the total CH<sub>4</sub> production by 56%. In addition, CH<sub>4</sub> intensity improved by 36% during the inventory period. Of the future scenarios, increased MY and improved feed efficiency had a substantial potential to improve CH<sub>4</sub> intensity. In both scenarios maintaining the current BW of cows resulted in higher mitigation potential. We conclude that selecting more efficient animals has a significant CH<sub>4</sub> mitigation potential.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Arial',sans-serif; font-size: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;"> </span></p> <p> </p> Pekka Huhtanen Aleksi Astaptsev Juha Nousiainen Copyright (c) 2022 Pekka Huhtanen, Aleksi Astaptsev, Juha Nousiainen 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 31 1 1–11 1–11 10.23986/afsci.113752 The effect of timing and intensity of weed harrowing in triticale-lupin mixture on weeds and crops <p>The aim of the study was to find the most beneficial time of weed harrowing with its intensity represented by the number of passes with spring-tine harrow executed on one day in a mixture of triticale (×<em>Triticosecale</em> Wittm.) and narrow-leaved lupin (<em>Lupinus</em> <em>angustifolius</em> L.). The randomized complete block design was applied in field conditions in 2015–2017. It comprised one factor, the timing and the intensity of post-emergence weed harrowing with the spring-tine harrow. The plots were harrowed once, twice, or three times on one day at six consecutive growth stages of triticale: BBCH 10, 11, 12, 13, 21, 22. Harrowing did not increase the grain yield of the triticale-lupin mixture, and when repeated three times at BBCH 21, it decreased the grain yield. The cereal was more resistant than lupin to timing and intensity of harrowing. The weeds were best controlled by a single cultivation conducted at the first leaf of triticale. This method caused a significant reduction in the density and the biomass of weeds at the anthesis of triticale and a reduction in the weed biomass at the full maturity of the mixture. Increasing intensity of harrowing by repeating cultivations had relatively weak influence on the weeds. </p> Piotr Sobkowicz Ewa Tendziagolska Copyright (c) 2022 Ewa Tendziagolska, Piotr Sobkowicz 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 31 1 12–23 12–23 10.23986/afsci.113476 The role of subsidies in stabilising farm income: Evidence from Estonia <h2>This study examines the role of agricultural subsidies in the farm income (FI) variation in Estonia in the period 2006–2019 using data from a balanced panel of Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) farms. FI variability is decomposed to three components: market income, total subsidies, and the cost of external factors. The results reveal that subsidies have a larger share in income of smaller farms. Variability of FI differs in farm size quartiles and is significantly lower in case of largest 25% of farms. Revenues are the largest source of variation of FI. While subsidies reduce FI variation, there is no evidence that they are counter-cyclical. We argue that in addition to subsidies, smaller farms need advice on farm management to increase market income, improve its stability, and expand farm size, as larger farms have more stable incomes despite relatively lower producer support estimate (PSE) levels. </h2> Olha Aleksandrova Tetiana Zhmykhova Ants-Hannes Viira Copyright (c) 2022 Olha Aleksandrova, Tetiana Zhmykhova, Ants-Hannes Viira 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 31 1 24–36 24–36 10.23986/afsci.112241 Assessment of the patulin contamination level in selected apple-based products available in retail in Poland <p>The aim of this study was to assess the level of patulin (PAT) contamination in selected apple-based products, <br />including food intended for infants and young children, available in retail in Poland in 2016–2020. The products <br />examined were selected due to their availability on the market and all of them derived from conventional production. All products examined contained only apples in their composition, with no other fruit added. The obtained results were related to the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of PAT established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (WHO 1995). In addition, in selected age groups, exposure assessment resulting from the intake of this toxin in the diet, was estimated. Only 2 of the 47 examined apple products contained PAT. The determined levels of contamination were significantly lower than a maximum acceptable level specified in the provisions of the food law at the level of 50.0 μg kg<sup>-1</sup> for apple juice. When considering the value of the average daily consumption of apple juice in Poland, the PAT daily intake from apple juice did not exceed the tolerable daily intake in any of the examined samples and amounted to a maximum of 1.6% of PMTDI. As for one portion recommended for consumption, the result obtained was also below tolerable daily intake and constituted a maximum of 38.7% of PMTDI. These findings are a particularly valuable source of information for farmers, traders and consumers, and confirm health safety of apple juice and apple-based products intended for infants and young children.</p> Piotr Pokrzywa Magdalena Surma Copyright (c) 2022 Piotr Pokrzywa, Magdalena Surma 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 31 1 37–43 37–43 10.23986/afsci.107978 Importance of light source position in exposure sequence for optimization of coloration and yield of red winter lettuce <p>Winter production of greenhouse crops in northern countries is totally dependent on supplementary lighting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the light source (high-pressure vapor lamps (HPS), light-emitting diodes (LED), or a combination) and their distribution in time on growth and coloration of red winter lettuce (<em>Lactuca</em> <em>sativa</em> L. cv. ‘Carmoli’). The used energy associated to each of the light treatments was also evaluated. The number of leaves, fresh and dry weight were significantly higher for plants treated only with HPS lights, whereas the red pigmentation was enhanced in plants grown only under LEDs. The lower yield under LEDs was associated with a significantly lower leaf temperature compared to plants grown under HPS lights. One week at the end of the growth period under LEDs was enough to achieve a satisfactory red color, while not compromising plant yield. The energy use efficiency was increased by nearly 50% in the LED-only treatment despite the lower plant yield compared to the HPS-only treatment. These results demonstrate that supplemental light quality can be strategically used by improving the light source position in exposure sequence to enhance the growth and coloration of winter lettuce.</p> Christina Stadler Copyright (c) 2022 Christina Stadler 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 31 1 44–53 44–53 10.23986/afsci.113503 The use of chemical plant protection products in field vegetable farms in a central industrial vegetable growing area in Finland <p>Progress in the reduction of environmental and health risks of PPPs (plant protection products) using Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in the EU needs to be gauged. Here, we report, for the first time, the exact quantities of PPP used in carrot, potato, swede, and fresh pea production in southwestern Finland from 2003 to 2019. Fresh peas and swede represent exceptionally low or decreasing use of PPPs, respectively. The number of treatments per field showed an increasing trend for fungicides used on potato, despite per unit area treatments have not increased. Furthermore, for carrots, insecticide and herbicide spray frequencies increased more than treatment volumes. The results of this study form a basis for analyzing ecotoxicological risks of PPP use in the studied crops because usage and spray frequencies alone do not convey the risk levels accurately. Research needs to be continued to better guide the recording of farmers’ plant protection activities and corresponding analysis to verify the impacts of IPM implementation.</p> <p> </p> Kati Räsänen Asko Hannukkala Sirpa Kurppa Marja Aaltonen Anne Rahkonen Jussi Kukkonen Irene Vänninen Copyright (c) 2022 Kati Räsänen, Asko Hannukkala, Sirpa Kurppa, Marja Aaltonen, Anne Rahkonen, Jussi V.K. Kukkonen, Irene Vänninen 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 31 1 54–69 54–69 10.23986/afsci.112827 Acknowledgement of referees <p>xxx</p> Tuula Puhakainen Copyright (c) 2022 Tuula Puhakainen 2022-04-28 2022-04-28 31 1 70 70 10.23986/afsci.116698