Agricultural and Food Science <p>Agricultural and Food Science (AFSci) publishes original research reports on agriculture and food research in relation to primary production in boreal agriculture. Acceptable papers must be of international interest and have a northern dimension. We especially welcome papers related to agriculture in Boreal and Baltic Sea Region.</p> The Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland en-US Agricultural and Food Science 1459-6067 <p>Authors who publish with Agricultural and Food Science agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Any part of the&nbsp;Agricultural and Food Science&nbsp;may be referred to assuming the Author, The Article, Publication with Volume and Number plus URL&nbsp;for the references have been provided.</li> </ol> Timing and conditions modify the effect of structure liming on clay soil <p>Two dates (early, normal) for application and incorporation of structure lime to clay soil were examined at four field sites, to test whether early liming had more favourable effects on aggregate stability. Aggregate size distribution measurements revealed a finer tilth at the early liming date (20 August) than the normal date (14 September). Aggregate stability estimated one year later, using as a proxy turbidity in leachate from 2–5 mm aggregates subjected to two simulated rainfall events, was significantly improved (11% lower turbidity) with early compared with normal liming date. Three years after structure liming, soil structural stability measurements on lysimeters (15 cm high, inner diameter 18 cm) subjected to repeated simulated rainfall events showed no significant differences in turbidity in leachate between the early and normal liming dates. However, there was a strong interaction between liming date and site indicating different reactions at different sites. Our results suggest that early spreading and incorporation can improve the success of structure liming, but only if soil conditions are favourable.</p> Jens Erik Blomquist Kerstin Berglund Copyright (c) 2021 Jens Erik Blomquist, Kerstin Berglund 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 30 3 96–107 96–107 10.23986/afsci.103422 Land Acquisition Regulation through the lens of expert stakeholders’ mental models - what are the implications for business development among Swedish farmers? <p>Agricultural and forestry land markets are regulated in several European countries. Assessing the economic consequences of land market regulation for agricultural and forestry firms is methodologically challenging for various reasons. The aim of this study is to explore the relevance of expert stakeholders’ mental models in order to gain insights into the economic impacts of agricultural and forestry land market regulation. We use thematic analysis based on in-depth interview data to explore Swedish expert stakeholders’ mental models concerning the regulation of the Swedish agricultural and forestry land market and focus on impacts for private land owners, i.e. farmers and non-industry forestry owners. This research strategy facilitated a rich understanding of the effects of land regulation on economic consequences for private landowners who use the land in farms and/or forestry. Findings indicate that current regulation does not have any major impact on the economic situation of the considered types of farms and non-industry forestry owners in Sweden. This is interesting from the perspective of agricultural and forestry land market policy.</p> Helena Hansson Katalin Simon Iryna Kristensen Copyright (c) 2021 Helena Hansson, Katalin Simon, Iryna Kristensen 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 30 3 108–118 108–118 10.23986/afsci.103062 Dependency of domestic food sectors on imported inputs with Finland as a case study <p>The objective of this study is to examine the import dependency of domestic food and service sectors in Finland and produce indicators for measuring the import content of these sectors together with the import dependency of the inputs supplied into these sectors. Input–output analysis is utilised to provide the necessary information on the interdependencies and linkages between different industries for both goods and services in the Finnish economy. <br />Primary agriculture, food processing, distribution and food service providers in Finland are heavily dependent on imported fossil fuels concerning energy and chemical inputs, including high reliance on imported supplementary protein feed for livestock production. However, most of the inputs supplied to the Finnish food and service sectors are domestic because only 20% of the total output is dependent on imported goods, services, and capital goods. The rate of self-sufficiency in food supply is high in Finland, but international trade is essential to provide the <br />necessary energy and chemical inputs needed for food production along with livestock’s supplementary protein feed. Replacing fossil energy with sustainable renewable energy will reduce the dependence on Russia for energy supply and promoting human consumption of plant-based foods will reduce the demand for livestock feed.</p> Ellen Huan-Niemi Marja Knuuttila Eero Vatanen Jyrki Niemi Copyright (c) 2021 Ellen Huan-Niemi, Marja Knuuttila, Eero Vatanen, Jyrki Niemi 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 30 3 119–130 119–130 10.23986/afsci.107580