Agricultural and Food Science <p>Agricultural and Food Science (AFSci) publishes original research reports on agriculture and food research in relation to primary production in boreal agriculture. Acceptable papers must be of international interest and have a northern dimension. We especially welcome papers related to agriculture in Boreal and Baltic Sea Region.</p> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> The Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland en-US Agricultural and Food Science 1459-6067 Authors who publish with Agricultural and Food Science agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Any part of the Agricultural and Food Science may be referred to assuming the Author, The Article, Publication with Volume and Number plus URL for the references have been provided.</li></ol> Carrot by-product fermentation quality and aerobic spoilage could be modified with silage additives <p>Vegetable by-products could potentially be suitable to be used as feeds in animal diets, which in general would strengthen the sustainability of both food and feed systems. Two experiments were performed with the objective to evaluate the aerobic spoilage via visual inspection and short term ensiling process of carrot by-products with silage additives (lactic acid bacteria [LAB] inoculants or formic acid [FA]). In the first experiment (Exp. 1), carrot by-product was treated with five additives including a control without additive, two commercial LAB inoculants (heterofermentative and homofermentative), an in-house isolated LAB mixture and a commercial FA based product. Second experiment (Exp. 2) used a 2 × 3 factorial design (type of raw material [carrot by-product with or without pieces] and additive treatment [control, heterofermentative LAB inoculant or FA based product]). Use of FA restricted lactic acid fermentation indicated by the high residual water soluble carbohydrate concentration while simultaneously stimulating ethanol production. LAB inoculants were not able to efficiently affect quality of ensiled carrot by-products. Use of FA also delayed the spoilage of the fresh carrot by-product particularly in Exp. 1.</p> Marketta Rinne Marcia Franco Taina Jalava Eila Järvenpää Minna Kahala Lucia Blasco Hilkka Siljander-Rasi Kaisa Kuoppala Copyright (c) 2019 Agricultural and Food Science 2019-06-28 2019-06-28 28 2 59–69 59–69 10.23986/afsci.79829 Variations in near-saturated hydraulic conductivity of arable mineral topsoils in south-western and central-eastern Finland <p>Soil hydraulic properties play an important role in determining the level of crop productivity and the extent of environmental loading. Consequently, measurement of near-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (K(h)) by tension infiltrometer (TI) is an interesting technique. To provide reference values for near-saturated K(h) in arable mineral topsoils of Finland and to investigate variability in these values caused by tillage, antecedent soil moisture content and earthworm burrows, field measurements were conducted in south-western and central-eastern Finland using the TI technique, at supply pressure head –6, –3, and –1 cm. The range of near-saturated K(h) values obtained was 0.02–12.6 mm h<sup>-1</sup> at –6 cm, 0.30–85.9 mm h<sup>-1</sup> at –3 cm, and 2.55–250 mm h<sup>-1</sup> at –1 cm. At –6 cm pressure head, clay soils tended to show lower values than coarser-structured soils, but the order was reversed at –1 cm. The spatial variation in near-saturated K(h) was moderate and was exceeded by the temporal variation.</p> Riikka Keskinen Mari Räty Janne Kaseva Jari Hyväluoma Copyright (c) 2019 Agricultural and Food Science 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 28 2 70–83 70–83 10.23986/afsci.79329 Effect of mycorrhiza on yield and quality of lettuce grown on medium with different levels of phosphorus and selenium <p>Lettuce plants were grown in the foil tunnel in pots filled with peat substrate. The experimental factors were: concentration of phosphorus in the substrate (70 or 140 mg dm<sup>-3</sup>), inoculation of substrate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (+AMF or –AMF) and concentration of selenium in the substrate (0, 6 or 12 mg dm<sup>-3</sup>). Mycorrhizal frequency in roots was affected by concentration of P, inoculation with AMF and interaction between these factors. Higher mycorrhizal frequency was found in plants inoculated with AMF and grown under conditions of lower P concentration. AMF did not affect an accumulation of Se in leaves. However, higher concentration of P and Se in the substrate affected Se concentration in leaves. The average yield of lettuce decreased with increasing level of Se in the substrate. The presence of Se in the substrate led to decrease of K, Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn content of plants. AMF did not have an effect on the content of sugars in leaves.</p> Iwona Kowalska Anna Konieczny Copyright (c) 2019 Agricultural and Food Science 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 28 2 84–92 84–92 10.23986/afsci.78169 Location effects across northeastern Europe on bioactive compounds in apple fruit <p>A multi-location trial was performed in apple orchards planted in 2005 under a uniform scheme in Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the geographical apple-tree growing location on the accumulation of dominant bioactive compounds in apple fruits: phenolics and triterpenes as the most valuable substances for human health. The study included two apple cultivars, ‘Auksis’ and ‘Ligol’, on B.396 rootstock and was carried out from 2016 to 2018. Geographical apple-tree growing location had a significant impact on the composition and total content of the tested bioactive compounds in apple fruits. Increased accumulation of phenolic and triterpene compounds was recorded in the south–north direction. This could be explained by the different climate conditions in the trial locations: the sum of active temperatures gradually decreased by 200–300 °C in the south–north direction, and the vegetation period becomes shorter. Apples grown in Estonia, depending on the tested cultivar, had 77–139% more total phenolic compounds. Significant differences were recorded for all groups of phenolic compounds. The differences between the trial sites in accumulation of triterpene compounds were lower, although apples in at farthest north location had 18–32% more total triterpene compounds than apples grown in south.</p> Jonas Viškelis Nobertas Uselis Mindaugas Liaudanskas Juozas Lanauskas Pawel Bielicki Toivo Univer Janis Lepsis Darius Kviklys Copyright (c) 2019 Agricultural and Food Science 2019-06-29 2019-06-29 28 2 93–100 93–100 10.23986/afsci.79458