Architectural Research in Finland 2022-09-12T12:15:20+03:00 Kimmo Lapintie Open Journal Systems <p>The journal "Architectural Research in Finland" is serving an academic publishing &nbsp;forum to the research field &nbsp;covering a variety of scales from technical details to global issues of urban and regional development. Architectural research &nbsp;is interdisciplinary by nature, covering technical sciences on construction and digital tools, social sciences on urbanism, environmental sciences on the impacts of urbanization and on landscape, and humanities on the history and theory of architecture. In addition to this, architecture as an art and design practice is more and more used as a research method on its own, as arts-based research or research by design.</p> <p>The papers published as articles in the journal are treated fairly and equally and with academic rigour, by &nbsp;reviewers on doctoral level, &nbsp;in order to provide a respectable forum for publishing new results of architectural research in Finland, as well as critical debate on the contemporary issues relevant to architecture.</p> <p>In May 2018 ARF was ranked at Level 1 (basic) in the Finnish Publication Forum classification system.</p> Editorial Introduction: Plan, Develop, Design. Making Smart Cities and Architecture 2022-09-09T09:45:20+03:00 Sari Hirvonen-Kantola 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Smart Principles for Knowledge-based Urban Development 2022-09-09T09:56:53+03:00 Ari Hynynen Jari Kolehmainen <p>Cities undergo continuous transformation processes, which have unique characteristic manifestations over time. The changes in many Finnish cities currently focus on the vicinity of railway station areas due to changes in regional structures and rail transport, as well as the densification of city centres. The enthusiasm for this kind of development is also increased by the special features of railway station areas, which seem to provide opportunities for new kinds of local economic and innovation policies. Railway station areas are also favourable locations for the application of various smart city technologies and services. In this article, we analyse the development of Finnish railway station areas as part of a wider continuum of urban development where both economic and innovation policies unify with urban planning. Case studies confirm our outlook of knowledge-based urban development transitioning to a new phase. This provides the prerequisites for interesting connections between railway station areas, the concept of a smart city and open innovation. One of the aims of our article is to bring together various themes that are brought up in smart city discussions and urban planning by introducing new kinds of spatial planning principles, which can be placed in three categories: 1) smart profiling, 2) smart design and 3) smart innovation.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Urban Industries and the Production of Urban Form 2022-09-09T10:05:34+03:00 Frederik Vandyck Inge Bertels <p>The proposed paper aspires to provide a typomorphological analysis of patrimony of industrial activity in the urban fabric of a productive hotspot of the Brussels Capital Region. The research fits within a larger PhD-track on the sustainable retrofit of such productive activities in this region.</p> <p>Due to zoning policies and increasing real estate pressure on urban land, a major part of the space-extensive productive activities has disappeared from Brussels’ urban areas, taking jobs and artisanal knowledge towards monotonous enclaves in the outskirts. Whereas European cities were rich in productive activities, they now mostly host consumption. This is problematic. Urbanists, architects and policy makers plead for the inversion of this process by reintegrating industrial enterprises in the urban fabric.</p> <p>Despite the observed shrinkage in the amount of active urban industries, a GIS informed hotspot analysis revealed a concentration in the Jette-Koekelberg area. The presented work therefore provides a typomorphological study of the patrimony of these remaining structures. In this light, the analysis is performed at different scales in order to bridge between the urban form and the architectural type. The studied area is therefore decomposed into the analysis of its urban fragments, building blocks and parcels.</p> <p>Informed by the logical classification of these productive urban artefacts at different scales, this paper aspires to obtain insights on their typomorphological setup. Deploying this approach which is mainly focused on the residential use, to a mixed-use area, unveils strongholds and alterations on basic types in the urban fabric. In doing so, this investigation attempts to inform the ongoing planning debate on productive cities and mixed-use development by looking specifically at the existing built environment: urban form and building types. Despite the large interest in productive cities, this has not yet been treated systematically.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Material City 2022-09-09T10:11:30+03:00 Tommy K. Lindgren <p>Urban development hinges on the availability of free space. The planned growth of Helsinki as reflected in the General plan of 2016 relies on identifying areas for infill in the urban fabric. In built-up areas there is a tendency to let the processes of urban change take place instead of top-down planning. This change is therefore not managed, but piecemeal, resulting in a patchwork of ‘stamp’ plans directed by narrow private economic considerations.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br><br>The life-span of buildings varies according to their material composition – also the type of a building and its spatial configuration affect its vitality. These attributes and conditions play a part in how long a building can endure before confronting the need for radical changes, and can be aggregated from open-source data and modeled using historical referents as benchmarks. This information forms a layer of probabilities in the city, revealing dormant locations facing imminent change. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <br><br>By mapping the information of the material conditions on the topography of the city, we can identify potentials for development. Identifying these latent sites in the city and engaging proprietors and landowners would give new tools for the City to affect the change and renewal associated with turnover of the building stock.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Alternative Approaches to Urban Regeneration and Infill Planning 2022-09-09T10:18:09+03:00 Hanna Kosunen Irina Atkova <p>In Finland, cities consider infill development as a means for urban regeneration in existing suburbs. However, the preconditions for development may vary: some areas are more attractive for infill development projects than others. Therefore, cities must align their urban regeneration approaches with the specifics of the context.</p> <p>This paper builds on the notions that the prevailing growth-dependent urban planning paradigm is not functional in areas demarcated by low growth or stagnation. Planning that seeks to bring value for the localities by appreciating their strengths and non-monetary assets might provide grounds for alternative planning approaches. From these starting points, we explore how Finnish urban planners align their urban regeneration approaches with different contexts. We aim at identifying when the growth-dependent approach is used, whether alternative approaches are deployed, and what are their underlying logics. Our analytical framework originates from organizational learning theory of action inquiry. It explains how urban regeneration visions, strategies and actions are adjusted to low growth contexts. The empirical material consists of three urban regeneration cases in the Finnish City of Turku.</p> <p>As a result, three approaches to urban regeneration with different emphases on infill development are depicted and discussed. The growth-dependent approach is used in areas with strategic importance for the City, and possibilities for urban growth. Alternative approaches seek to support local development initiatives or inspire development in areas where it does not yet exist. The contribution of this exploratory paper is to demonstrate that urban planners in Finland deploy alternatives to growth-dependent planning and provide conceptualizations of alternative planning approaches.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Which Is the Most Cost-efficient Alternative, a New Build or the Rehabilitation of a Cultural Heritage Site? 2022-09-09T10:27:25+03:00 Mari Oline Giske Stendebakken Nils O. E. Olsson <p>Given the choice between the rehabilitation of a cultural heritage site and a new build, recent history in Norway shows that the new build is often chosen, with the justification of cost efficiency.</p> <p>This paper compares approaches to cultural heritage sites from a property development and a protection of cultural heritage point of view to test this judgment. These two professional fields overlap and need to cooperate. Thus, a closer look at their similarities and differences should provide valuable insights.</p> <p>This paper applies a case-study method to a large country estate building at a NATO air base in need of office space. The building has legal protection at the national level. Costs are calculated for three scenarios for new offices: rehabilitation of the protected building, a new build, and renting. All alternatives include legally mandated maintenance of the protected building, as the same public body carries out both tasks.</p> <p>Of the three alternatives, the new build and renting were the most expensive over a thirty-year time span. Rehabilitation was the most economical. These findings indicate that owners of protected buildings should investigate possibilities to activate such buildings, due to not only their cultural heritage values, but also their economic potential.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 National Urban Park 2022-09-09T10:34:54+03:00 Ranja Hautamäki <p>This paper addresses the concept of the national urban park (NUP) (<em>kansallinen kaupunkipuisto</em>) as a planning tool for rapidly growing cities. The focus is on the establishment process of a NUP in Tampere and Helsinki, where it has generated strong views both in favour and against. The study reveals these conflicting arguments and examines the related objectives, values and stakeholders. The empirical basis of the study is a qualitative content analysis on the NUP planning and decision-making documents.</p> <p>The paper demonstrates that the NUP can be seen either as a model for sustainable urban planning or as a legislative cage for development. On the one hand the NUP is regarded as restricting development, emphasizing static preservation, bringing no real added value, transferring municipal decision-making to the Ministry and engaging primarily environmental and heritage stakeholders. On the other hand, it is considered to be a long-term tool of urban planning, safeguarding values, contributing to tourism and engaging a broad range of actors. The research shows that the NUP process reveals the current tensions between continuity and change, and nature and city, in rapidly growing cities. The paper also emphasizes the importance of understanding the divergent views of different actors in the search for a shared vision of the future of the city.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Resilient Housing and Care Services for Aging Municipalities 2022-09-09T10:38:05+03:00 Ira Verma <p>The <em>Social welfare and health care reform</em> in Finland will have an impact on the services provided by the municipalities. The housing services, health promotion and wellbeing of residents will remain in charge of the local authorities. Environmental factors are important for independent coping of older people who live in their own homes assisted by peers or by home care staff. Therefore, architects need to anticipate the demographic change in housing design and urban planning.</p> <p>The Government Key project <em>TÄYTYY</em> (2017 – 2018) was a research and development project targeting at efficient and operational service network, combining housing, home care and remote care services. The objective was to provide a resilient service structure for small municipalities through resource efficiency, complementing the urban structure and sharing existing facilities and resources locally.</p> <p>The multiple case study method was used to promote shared use of resources and spaces in local context.&nbsp; The project was carried out with cross-sectoral collaboration together with Aalto University, municipalities, health care service providers and local associations. As result, the project provided a model and a process of development for small municipalities. <em>TÄYTYY </em>project was carried out in collaboration with the Ministry of the Social Affairs and Health and the Ministry of the Environment.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Individuality Included 2022-09-09T10:40:48+03:00 Riikka Kuittinen Eevamaria Juuti Matti Lakkala Janne Pihlajaniemi <p>Only a few percent of new detached houses in Finland are designed by architects. Most people planning to build a house use only free design services included in the price of house delivery. This means for example that a building engineer designs the house based on some standard model, which he changes according to discussions between sales person and customer. This often results in seemingly generic houses that do not capture most value of the plot. Log houses make no exception in the Finnish market, even if they are a somewhat luxury product abroad. Why do not people in Finland use architects for designing their log houses? Is it because of the price of the design work? How does the log manufacturer’s system of configuring houses work without architects? Are log house companies satisfied with the current system? Could mass customization strategies be suitable for developing design and production processes of log houses?</p> <p>This paper presents results of studying the need and supply of individuality of log houses, and current house design processes that let users participate configuring their new log homes in Finland. The study was carried out via consumer study and interviews of log house industry’s managing directors and sales personnel. All of these companies are building non-speculative individually-commissioned houses, building houses to meet customers’ individual orders rather than for stock.</p> <p>Based on our consumer study, there is a great demand for individual houses. Only 8,8% of the consumers would choose a standard house model. However only 10% of respondents would prefer a unique house designed by an architect, while 68.9% would prefer a modified standard model. Most important reason for not using architect is the price of the design work. This results in contradiction, since consumers want an individual house, but are not ready to pay for designing.</p> <p>Surprisingly, all interviewed managing directors of log house companies said they produce only individual houses. Customers always want some modifications even in the standard models, and that results in designing each house anew. This has a negative effect on the profits of the companies, since design work is included in the price of the house delivery. What customers might not realize is that when design work is done at the risk of house builders or even sales people, it is done with as little effort and cost as possible.</p> <p>Since the existing design process of log houses produces often seemingly generic but always laboriously planned houses, there would be need for improvement. Systematization of individual choices could benefit log house companies in terms of design resources. And If mass customization approach would bring architectural quality available to a broader group of new log house dwellers, they would benefit, too.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Perceptions of Log and Log Buildings among Finnish Architectural and Building Industry Professionals 2022-09-09T10:46:38+03:00 Aale Luusua Matti Lakkala Janne Pihlajaniemi <p>Log as building material is undergoing rapid technological changes due to the introduction of industrially developed lamella log. This new material expands the technological repertoire that is available to architects when designing with log. Furthermore, various societal trends relating to ecology, occupant health, and contemporary architectural expression are potentially altering the status and desirability of log as a building material. Thus, from the point of view of architectural research, the log as a building material should be re-investigated. In this paper, our aim is to scrutinise log and log construction through exploring <em>how log is currently perceived as a material among Finnish building professionals</em>. For this purpose, we analyse interviews conducted with 15 professionals in Finland. To gain these research materials, we utilised a method where a traditional semi-structured interview is combined with an in-situ interview in a pavilion construct built by our research team. We complement these materials with brief reviews into wood research and the history of log construction in Finland.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Novel Architectonic Solutions for Industrial Log 2022-09-09T10:54:49+03:00 Matti Lakkala Janne Pihlajaniemi Riikka Kuittinen <p>There is a growing demand on using log as a construction material. In addition, production technology and technical properties of log products have undergone rapid changes in the era of industrial production. Examples for use of industrial log, that are architecturally suitable for the requirements of new uses, are few. For these reasons in this paper, it is explored what are the properties of industrial log building, and what kind of novel, structurally characteristic architectonic solutions for industrial log emerge in contemporary architecture. Besides a literature review, a qualitative analysis on five examples of contemporary architecture is conducted. As results, we showcase several novel architectonic solutions for industrial log. The first category of results, overall configuration of logs, includes entireties of logs that are structurally bearing, but also entireties where the logs act in other function than as structurally bearing. Entireties of logs are supported by next two categories – joining of logs and properties of individual logs, which can both be seen as components of the overall configuration. This study creates basis for further research on architectural possibilities of industrial logs. In addition, findings of this research can serve as an inspiration for designing architects and log house industry.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lighting Cultures in Northern and Southern Europe 2022-09-09T16:08:54+03:00 Lucrezia Seghi Sarunas Noskaitis Spyridon Spanos Mette Hvass Ellen Kathrine Hansen <p>In order to create awareness of different qualities of light in indoor living spaces, two different lighting cultures are being investigated; Northern and Southern European. We therefore investigate the relation between natural and artificial light, based on geographical position as well as social/cultural habits of different countries. The aim is that this approach will inform the user on how different lighting scenarios can improve the use of the space. The investigations are based on end user’s preferences and illustrate how awareness of different lighting cultures can be used in different lighting design scenarios. The findings from this specific project are meant to support the development of scenarios for future lighting fixtures and control systems based on a deeper understanding of cultural and geographical parameters.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ambient Adaptive Lighting 2022-09-09T16:19:40+03:00 Kjell Yngve Petersen <p>The concept of adaptive lighting suggests architectural lighting designs that adjust and react to the living practices of inhabitants and variations in the environmental conditions. Current developments in lighting technologies, such as LED light sources and IoT infrastructures, open for new opportunities with adaptive lighting, where the control of the lighting possibly operates as an IoT service rather than build into building management systems.</p> <p>The dynamic flux in lighting changes the experiential presence and brings focus on change and variation rather than states, levels and structures. The suggestion is to enable adaptive intertwinement through an expanded field of dynamic flux in the artificial lighting, and couple between the daylighting and the artificial lighting through an integration of ambient contexts.</p> <p>The project develops experiential prototypes, with which the dynamic design parameters of adaptive lighting can be investigated, analysed and scoped into architectural programming processes. The staging’s are full-scale architectural scenography’s, which situate investigations into how the experience parameters of fluctuating artificial lighting, integrated with daylight flux in an architectural space, are experienced to influence the experience of architectural space, social situations and everyday activities.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Light and Media Projections in Patient Rooms 2022-09-09T16:23:42+03:00 Stine Louring Nielsen Esben Oxholm Ellen Kathrine Hansen <p>New media and lighting technology and new ways to connect and control it have the potential to improve the environment in hospitals with the goal of increasing patient satisfaction. How should such system be designed to do so and how can it be tested? In this paper it is investigated how a specific case, an interactive lighting and media system installed in a patient room, can be improved to support a greater experience of patient satisfaction. Through questionnaires given to 14 mothers who have just given birth and their husbands staying in an interactive patient room, the experience of staying in the room and the patient satisfaction have been assessed. The results from the questionnaires are hereto combined to data log on how the media system has been used, which additionally leads to a design evaluation for the interactive media system. The results imply several areas which can be improved to meet the specific needs of the patients and thereby provide higher patient satisfaction. Hereto, the main findings suggest that the control of the lighting needs to be less complicated, the different lighting settings needs to be better tailored to the actual needs, noise from the projector and light coming from the iPad needs to be reduced, and for critical situations, the medical equipment needs to be an exact copy of what the caregivers are used to.</p> 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Preface by Editor-in-Chief 2022-09-09T09:26:28+03:00 Kimmo Lapintie 2022-09-09T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022