Architectural Research in Finland <p>The journal "Architectural Research in Finland" is serving an academic publishing &nbsp;forum to the research field &nbsp;covering a variety of scales from technical details to global issues of urban and regional development. Architectural research &nbsp;is interdisciplinary by nature, covering technical sciences on construction and digital tools, social sciences on urbanism, environmental sciences on the impacts of urbanization and on landscape, and humanities on the history and theory of architecture. In addition to this, architecture as an art and design practice is more and more used as a research method on its own, as arts-based research or research by design.</p> <p>The papers published as articles in the journal are treated fairly and equally and with academic rigour, by &nbsp;reviewers on doctoral level, &nbsp;in order to provide a respectable forum for publishing new results of architectural research in Finland, as well as critical debate on the contemporary issues relevant to architecture.</p> <p>In May 2018 ARF was ranked at Level 1 (basic) in the Finnish Publication Forum classification system.</p> Aalto ARTS Department of Architecture, Tampere University School of Architecture and Oulu School of Architecture. en-US Architectural Research in Finland 2489-6799 Editorial Introduction Markku Norvasuo Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 7–9 7–9 10.37457/arf.113200 Architecture, City and Home: A Personal Narrative of a Globetrotter <p>Based on a narrative approach, this contribution analyses a personal life journey to discuss the relationships between architecture, city and home.</p> Karine Dupre Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 10–26 10–26 10.37457/arf.113223 Preface by Editor-in-Chief Kimmo Lapintie Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 5–6 5–6 10.37457/arf.113092 Unsettled – Reconsidering the Notion of ‘Homelessness’ through the Lens of Urban Movement <p>This paper proposes to reconsider the notion of ‘homelessness’ under the lens of urban movement, suggesting that the long prevailing stigma against people experiencing homelessness is a repercussion of the idea that living an unsettled life can destabilize capitalist societies. Living on the <em>move</em>, by choice or, most commonly, without one, embodies a resistance to the capitalist valorization of land: Transient lifestyles resist the precept of property ownership, and hint at alternative ways of living in cities, beyond capitalist norms. Simultaneously, they are bodily evidence of the mechanisms of urban displacement further triggered by real estate speculation, as it is the socio-economic and political system of capitalism which produces contemporary conditions of unchosen homelessness. Thus, the paper links the stigmatization of homelessness to notions of urban movement and capitalist urban logics. Untangling these complex dependencies, then, becomes also a way to reconsider notions of making a home in cities.</p> Hannah Strothmann Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 27–39 27–39 10.37457/arf.113225 Quarticciolo <p>Applying case study methodology, this article addresses problematics related to the identity and origin of the Italian fascist-era residential satellite areas constructed around the capital, Rome. The article focuses on one such suburb, Quarticciolo, built mainly between 1940 and 1943 on the eastern periphery of the city. Three narratives contributing to the formation of the area’s identity are identified and presented: Quarticciolo as (i) an expression of the fascist government’s aspirations, (ii) a significant centre of anti-fascist resistance, and (iii) an example of modern rationalist architecture.</p> <p>The three narratives, along with their constitutive elements, are then compared, and counterarguments to them are presented. It is argued that although all the narratives, in different ways, are connected to historical facts, each one of them on its own offers a one-sided interpretation. The narratives are then connected to the process of the public memorialization of the fascist era and the resistance, and to broader ongoing discussions concerning the architecture of totalitarian and dictatorial regimes as ‘dissonant heritage’.</p> Minna Kulojärvi Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 40–61 40–61 10.37457/arf.113248 When a Patio Becomes a City <p>In the 1950s, the city of Casablanca underwent a surge in demographic growth. Having become a strategic port during the French protectorate, it quickly had to accommodate more than 140,000 new arrivals from the countryside.</p> <p>The most extensive urban development project in the city was Carrières Centrales, introduced as a case study in the CIAM IX by the GAMMA team. Michel Écochard, Candilis and Woods reinterpreted the traditional Moroccan house in a compact horizontal fabric as well as in singular buildings. This became the typology not only for a house, but for the whole city.</p> <p>A revisit to Carrières Centrales 65 years after its construction provides an understanding of the metamorphosis that the urban fabric has undergone over time. The critical analysis in this research aims to uncover the main architectural and social parameters that have influenced its transformation.</p> <p>To achieve this goal, fieldwork was carried out during a research trip in October 2018. The work involved contacting local professors, accessing the archives of the University of Casablanca, interviewing the residents, and redrawing and graphing all the architectural elements that had changed since their construction.</p> <p>The urban fabric of Carrières Centrales was found to have evolved in a way that supports the following hypothesis: if an urban model imported into a developing country does not adapt to the changes in the life of its residents, it is considered a failure.</p> Luis Palacios Labrador Beatriz Alonso Romero Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 62–82 62–82 10.37457/arf.113250 The Tall Building and Urban Space <p>If public spaces in the urban environment are seen as extensions of one’s home, then what role do tall buildings play in this setting? In terms of <em>space</em>, they can have various roles. They are visible from afar and often act as landmarks, but at the same time they give one a possibility to see the urban whole in its entirety, from above.</p> <p>One of most iconic images of modern urban planning and modern urban space – Le Corbusier’s plan for Paris – is shown from such a vantage point, depicting an urban area dotted with individual buildings set within a continuous spatial field. This modern space has often been described as open and homogeneous. The simplified general interpretation has further been complemented by the concept of heterogeneous space, paving the way for a more diverse spatial theory. Heterogeneous space has brought much needed complexity to interpretations of architectural space.</p> <p>Modernist space is revisited in this article, explored through two particular cases. In addition to Le Corbusier, the study includes the work of another architect and urban planner of the early 20<sup>th</sup> century, Eliel Saarinen. The role of tall buildings in the designs and writings of the two architects is compared, with a specific focus on the spatial implications of these buildings in the cityscape. The comparison illustrates the fact that modern architects were not unanimous in their visions of urban space, although they shared the knowledge of a contemporary spatial theory.</p> Minna Chudoba Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 83–97 83–97 10.37457/arf.113257 Learning from Precedent <p>This paper argues that precedent should play a fundamental role in the development of sustainable homes. It will describe how the design of two energy efficient family homes in Winchester, England, adopt a distinctive approach to environmental precedent.</p> <p>The modern house is substantially a product of numerical calculation, such as the modelling of performance data and cost-benefit analysis. Construction (materials, u-values) and processes (energy use, assembly, airtightness) are quantified and assessed to ensure they achieve design objectives based on recognised standards of performance (Energy Performance Certificate: A; Code for Sustainable Homes: level 4).</p> <p>However this technical analysis alone cannot inform the initial creative idea. The design of these houses was informed by intuitive reference to a range of diverse precedents, including the work of Alvar Aalto, Sverre Fehn, Robert Venturi and Roelof Uytenbogaardt.</p> <p>The asymmetric roofs of Aalto’s <em>Housing</em> for ex-service men in Tampere (1941) define thresholds to front and side doors, and a sheltered private space to the back overlooking the garden. Fehn’s Villa Norrköping (1964) was designed around circadian rhythms, with day and night-time spaces defined by glazed corners (’eyes’) and alcoves, animated by daylight and shadow. Venturi’s Mother’s House (1964) symbolises in its idiosyncratic form and modest material treatment the pragmatic and egalitarian promise of a home and identity of one’s own. House Uytenbogaardt (1993) exploits solar orientation and the topography of its location to the utmost, framing views of the horizon and sunsets over the ocean. The house is part fortified tower house, part bespoke wooden cabinet, responding to the unique atmosphere and light of the Western Cape coastline.</p> <p>This paper will describe how these two subtly different Winchester houses borrow from each of these examples to reconcile technical requirements with the poetic possibilities inherent in imagining other environments, informed by the specific climate and conditions of the site.</p> Ranald Lawrence Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 98–116 98–116 10.37457/arf.113258 Affordable Housing Reimagined <p>This paper explores contemporary affordable housing in Denmark. The aim is to unfold central ideas in some of the most progressive projects that have recently been designed and built. The paper goes into three areas of architecture, namely the social, the formal and the technological. In each area one aspect is analysed and discussed with a point of departure in a specific project: The social in relation to the neighbourly and The Orient by Dorte Mandrup, the formal in relation to the spacious and Dortheavej housing by BIG, and the technological in relation to the rebuildable and Circle House by Fællestegnestuen. The aim is to contribute to the current discourse on affordable housing from a Danish standpoint and in an architectural perspective.</p> Michael Asgaard Andersen Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 117–129 117–129 10.37457/arf.113259 The Potential Contribution of Wood in Green Building Certifications <p>The building sector has a significant impact on the environment, accounting for 36% of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and about half of material consumption in Europe. Residential buildings dominate the European building stock. In Finland, residential buildings account for up to 80% of the existing buildings and the rate of construction is higher compared to other building types. Therefore, residential buildings play an important role in the transition to a sustainable built environment. A number of studies show that increasing the use of wood can lower the life cycle environmental impacts of buildings. In Scandinavia, the use of wood in small houses is well established, used in 90% of cases. Furthermore, the increasing number of high-rise wooden buildings suggests a growing interest in the potential of wood in large-scale buildings. Green building certification provides criteria to assess the sustainability level of buildings and is expected to influence the building sector in the near future, by promoting the use of sustainable technologies. The aim of this study was to investigate how green building certification schemes assess wood materials and how wood materials can help fulfil sustainability criteria for green buildings. We analyse the sustainability criteria adopted by the most common certification schemes in Finland, BREEAM, LEED and the Nordic Swan Ecolabel, as well as the upcoming Level(s) certification promoted by the European Commission. The analysis shows that the contribution of wood materials to the overall score of green building certifications accounts for between 10 and 36%. Wood is advantageous as a renewable and low-carbon material. Furthermore, wood can offer indirect benefits due to its recycling potential and to water saving in the construction stage. However, wood materials have to comply with some requirements, such as sustainable forest management and low volatile organic compound content. The new European certification suggests a comprehensive assessment including circular material life cycles.</p> Chiara Piccardo Ashraful Alam Mark Hughes Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 130–146 130–146 10.37457/arf.113262 Timescapes beyond the Metropolises <p>The past decades have witnessed a rise of culture-led urban regeneration. The successful cultural models have travelled throughout the world, and applied to cities and urban areas regardless of their size and location. Culture, ranging between high culture and contemporary creative economies, acquires potential to contribute to physical, social and economic aspects of urban regeneration. Successful examples of culture-led urban regeneration have tempted small cities to invest in traveling global cultural policies. Academic community has criticized these travelling policies for over-simplifying the abstract notion of culture, overrating the benefits of culture-led urban regeneration and ignoring local temporal specifics. This paper argues that a temporal analysis framework would enable a holistic approach to culture-led urban regeneration, and embrace the temporal uniqueness of urban contexts. This article discusses the temporal characteristics of culture-led regeneration in a provincial city context within an empirical case study analysis of Myllytulli in Oulu, Northern Finland. Myllytulli represents a district of regional cultural relevance where cultural amenities range from museums and educational facilities to creative bottom-up initiatives. This study reframes Myllytulli’s urban regeneration process using temporal conceptions of recent interdisciplinary academic discourse. The empirical data set consists of expert interviews, observation material and municipal planning documents. The results analyse the urban regeneration process within the linear temporal ideals of rational-comprehensive planning, reactive experiential urbanism and relational dimensions of time. The paper suggests time-sensitive approaches for future research and practice of urban regeneration.</p> Tiina Hotakainen Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 147–165 147–165 10.37457/arf.113263 Participative approach for developing population centres of shrinking municipalities <p>Over the last decades, Finland´s population growth is centred on a few urban areas. At the same time most of the Finnish municipalities are losing population. In the year 2019 population diminished in 256 and grew in 54 municipalities. Based on population forecast, the same development is expected to continue in the future. Population decline has an impact on the urban structure of the population centres. Services disappear, buildings are abandoned and maintenance of infrastructure becomes insufficient due to the weak financial resources of the municipality. The development has also an impact on the local inhabitants and their everyday life and social contacts.</p> <p>Since the population decline will continue in future, there is a need for more information about urban planning and building design methods to respond to the changing demands of population centres. The objective of the research is to describe the residents and second home owners’ perception of the current situation and the development possibilities of shrinking municipalities. The case study focuses on population centres with less than 10 000 inhabitants. The qualitative research seeks answers to the following questions: What services are important for the residents in their own population centre? What services do the residents use in the neighbourhood municipalities? What do the residents value most in the municipality and what needs to be developed? How would the residents like to be involved in the development of their own population centre? The material was compiled through a questionnaire survey to inhabitants and second home owners of three municipalities. It was possible to fill the survey out by paper or online. A total of 1052 responses were received.</p> <p>The results of the survey show how meaningful the services of the own population centre are for the residents and how long distances to services affect the everyday life of the inhabitants. The respondents emphasized as well the importance of well-maintained and cosy indoor and outdoor spaces. The use of spaces and services is often seasonal in shrinking municipalities. Multilocality is both an opportunity and a challenge to the small municipalities. It is important to encourage residents and second home owners to participate in the development activities of their population centre. Nevertheless, the participation and the willingness to participate has proven to be individual.&nbsp; The residents and their spontaneous work for the development of the neighbourhood is a resource that could be utilised more in the shrinking municipalities.</p> Jonna Taegen Tuula Kivinen Copyright (c) 2021 Architectural Research in Finland 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 5 1 166–186 166–186 10.37457/arf.113264