Architectural Research in Finland https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland <p>The journal "Architectural Research in Finland" is serving an academic publishing &nbsp;forum to the research field &nbsp;covering a variety of scales from technical details to global issues of urban and regional development. Architectural research &nbsp;is interdisciplinary by nature, covering technical sciences on construction and digital tools, social sciences on urbanism, environmental sciences on the impacts of urbanization and on landscape, and humanities on the history and theory of architecture. In addition to this, architecture as an art and design practice is more and more used as a research method on its own, as arts-based research or research by design.</p> <p>The papers published as articles in the journal are treated fairly and equally and with academic rigour, by &nbsp;reviewers on doctoral level, &nbsp;in order to provide a respectable forum for publishing new results of architectural research in Finland, as well as critical debate on the contemporary issues relevant to architecture.</p> <p>In May 2018 ARF was ranked at Level 1 (basic) in the Finnish Publication Forum classification system.</p> Aalto ARTS Department of Architecture, Tampere University School of Architecture and Oulu School of Architecture. en-US Architectural Research in Finland 2489-6799 Driving in/between Places: Rhythms, Urban Spaces and Everyday Driving Routes https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73170 <p>The use of the private car is one of the key factors that have shaped the contemporary urban milieu and daily life in the city. The paper examines what kind of temporal relations are produced between the driver and the environment in the context of habitual everyday driving routes. The data – utilizing go-along interviews, participant-produced visual material and recorded videos of drives – is examined by focusing on the temporal character of the routes by utilizing a ‘rhythmanalytical’ framework. The analysis examines ways in which spatial rhythms are produced and interacted with in and beyond the car-space. Focusing on the rhythmicities of everyday driving routes – as sites of everyday life and contexts for the urban experience – uncovers relations, experiences and meanings embedded in these mobile spaces and practices.</p> Jani Tartia Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 36 52 The Experience and Beauty in the Cultural Heritage Discourse https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73171 <p>The cultural heritage in the built environment is developing discursively, and the&nbsp;&nbsp; concept is today exposed more variously than a decade ago when I explained in the doctoral dissertation through a case study how the place, the process and the experience were arising in the Foucaldian discourses. My on-going research on the change of the cultural heritage discourse (kulttuuriympäristö) is showing how the designations are changing and the concepts re-defined. The national strategy on the cultural heritage (2014) is emphasizing everybody’s right on the good cultural heritage environment and also the responsibilities to take care of that. When we now share the idea that the cultural heritage in the built environment is belonging to all of us, the places and experiences of all are also important.</p> <p>Nevertheless, in the end is the experience or the aesthetic experience exactly, really important when opinions are contradictory and the crucial decision has to be made: to preserve or to dismantle the building? The absence of aesthetics in decision-making has been extremely explicit since the recession of the 1990s and public discussions and political decision-making seem to involve mostly economic arguments.</p> <p>Architects are using the experience, meaning the aesthetic, bodily experience or referring to art, in their professional speech but to speak about “the beauty experience” or able to emphasize the meaning of beauty in architecture, and also in the environment is usually left outside the discussions. The experience, together with reflection, following Dewey, is very important in the speech of teaching architects. In the cultural heritage discourse, narratives, experiences and local stories from bottom-up are arising but do we talk about the aesthetics or the experiences of beauty in the built environment?</p> <p>In this paper, the aim is to discuss about the meaning of experiences and the role of beauty in cultural heritage discourse. The method used here is the case study research, and two local cases from different decades will be introduced to demonstrate how miniscule or completely absent aesthetic argumentation in decision making processes can remain, and how different the solutions ended up, though both cases concerned the question of built cultural heritage. The central question in my on-going research project on the changing cultural heritage discourse is: How “the aesthetic experience” is appearing today in the cultural heritage discourses? This paper aims to cast light on that and tries to answer especially this: How did the cultural heritage discourse evolve from different experiences; and how did ugliness become important rather than beauty in the case studies?</p> Helena Teräväinen Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 53 74 Urban Aesthetics as a Trading Zone https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73172 <p>Due to a multitude of reasons, the prevailing conceptions regarding the aesthetic values and the principles of aesthetic evaluation of different urban environments are significantly varying, and there may not be a wide-spread consensus even about the general meaning of aesthetic issues in urban environments. That is to say, when discussing the aesthetics and aesthetic values of urban environments, the aesthetic concepts may refer to a variety of phenomena, and, further, the relationship between the aesthetic dimension and other key aspects constituting the urban experience is rather ambiguous. Moreover, aesthetic issues comprise a considerable part of urban planning, and yet it is not evident, how and on what grounds the diverse questions involving aesthetics are or should be solved in practice. If aesthetic questions are to be resolved collectively and by the means of rational argumentation, it is reasonable to ask for the necessary preconditions of such “aesthetic cooperation” and its coordination.</p> <p>The question regarding the preconditions may be addressed using the concept of <em>trading zone</em>. Such an approach highlights the importance of defining the relevant actors taking part in the cooperation (i.e. the “trade”) and their motivation to work cooperatively. The basis for motivation lies in recognizing achievable benefits and pursuing them by the means of trade. There may, however, be a lack of motivation if there are more straightforward and effortless alternatives available, or if the possibilities for achieving the benefits appear negligible or nonexistent. For example, if the outcomes of the official participatory planning process are continuously considered inappropriate and unjust from the viewpoint of certain stakeholders, the process may eventually lose its status as a genuine trading zone. This, in turn, may result in purposeless objections and appeals aiming at merely paralyzing the entire process.</p> <p>Present-day planning processes ignore experiential and thus qualitative arguments rather easily, which is a major source of experienced injustice. Hence, there is a demand for certain “thin interpretations” summarizing the most essential values and meanings of different stakeholders without requiring a thorough explication of related lifeworlds. Experiential and qualitative arguments are essential also with regard to aesthetics, and the notion of “urban aesthetics as a trading zone” refers to thin interpretations of aesthetic issues, implying that though there could be some kind of consensus about the general and large-scale meaning of urban aesthetics despite significant and wide-spread disagreements about particular aesthetic values.</p> <p>Aesthetic issues are of particular weight in the context of urban infill development – mainly due to the fact that infill development plans usually aim at changing an environment in which many locally bound networks of experiential meanings and values already exist – and empirical studies suggest that the questions of aesthetics may even be decisive when it comes to approving and disapproving potential infill plans. “Urban aesthetics as a trading zone” clarifies 1) why the infill plans are so often contested, 2) which are the fundamental values that the stakeholders eventually defend or oppose, and 3) why the encountered resistance may convert into a complete denial of cooperation so easily.</p> Vesa Vihanninjoki Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 75 93 The “Aesthetic Turn” as a Bridge between Communicative and Agonist Planning Theories https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73176 <p>This paper discusses the dispute between consensus-oriented communicative planning theorists and dissensus-oriented agonist planning theorists. The paper starts from the observation that a number of advocates of agonism have followed the so-called “aesthetic turn” in political thought. They have emphasised, in particular, the politically progressive potential of the mode of reason that Kant introduced in his aesthetics, a mode that deviates from the Kantian theoretical and practical modes of reason, and one that has generally been marginalised in modern societies. While the proponents of agonism wish to make use of this mode of reason when attempting to challenge hegemonic projects and give voice to marginalised groups in society, Habermas has been generally taken to be one of those philosophers who marginalize the aesthetic mode of reason. Yet, also Habermas has found inspiration from Kant’s aesthetics, including the notions of consensus and <em>sensus communis</em>. Hence, the paper revisits Kantian aesthetics to search for a common ground between Habermasian and agonist views of politics and planning. It ends up arguing that the notions of consensus and dissensus do not stand for mutually exclusive orientations in planning, but both of these orientations have their places in planning systems and practices. The paper takes a look at some recent case studies that have charted potential places for productive agonist confrontations in the British development control based planning system. Having done so, the paper ends with some suggestions as to where would be the appropriate places for respective approaches in the context of Finnish planning.</p> Hanna Mattila Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 94 113 Architecture as Well-Being https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73180 <p>Christopher Alexanderin arkkitehtuurifilosofian lähtökohtana on arkkitehtuurin käsitteellistämisen vaikeus. Hän puhui ”laadusta vailla nimeä”, mistä hän sanoi, ettei sitä voi ”valmistaa, vaan se syntyy ihmisten arkisen tekemisen kautta epäsuorasti” (Alexander 1979, xi). Tässä teoreettisessa artikkelissa jaetaan tuo näkemys, kuten myös pyrkimys selittää arkkitehtuurin tapahtumista kielellisyyden kautta. Teoreettista selitystä arkkitehtuurin ei-käsitteellistetylle laadulle ihmisten arkisessa toiminnassa haetaan kuitenkin eri suunnalta kuin Alexander: yhdistelemällä Gregory Batesonin teoriaa toiminnallisesta metakommunikaatiosta Ludwig Wittgensteinin filosofisiin näkemyksiin kielen käytön käytäntöjen (kielipelien) sidonnaisuudesta elämänmuotoihin sekä edelleen Roger Scrutonin Wittgensteinia soveltavaan arkkitehtuuriestetiikkaan. Tältä pohjalta artikkelissa hahmotellaan teoriaa arkkitehtuurin laadusta arkisena viihtymisenä, missä arkkitehtuurin käyttäjille tarjoutuu mahdollisuuksia käyttönsä myötä omaehtoiseen itseilmaisuun keskinäisessä sosiaalisessa koordinoitumisessaan rakennetussa ympäristössä. Vaikka tällainen viihtyminen on pitkälti tiedostamatonta, on sen mahdollistavaa arkkitehtuuria suunniteltaessa kuitenkin kyettävä käsitteellistämään siihen sisältyviä sosiaalis-materiaalisia elementtejä. Arkkitehdilta vaaditaan herkkyyttä ja eläytymiskykyä tunnistaa, ei vain arkkitehtuurin esineympäristön funktionaalisen käytön kielipelejä, vaan myös sen esteettisen käytön kielipelejä, joissa arkkitehtuurin käyttäjät itseään metakommunikoivasti ilmaisten koordinoituvat keskinäisissä suhteissaan. Funktionalismin perinnön myötä arkkitehtuurin esteettisen käytön merkitys on jäänyt laajalti vaille ymmärrystä. Vallitsevassa kulttuurissamme se näyttää korvautuneen arkkitehtuuriestetiikalla, joka suuntautuu ennemminkin arkkitehtikunnan keskinäisiin kielipeleihin.</p> Raine Mäntysalo Kaj Nyman Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 114 129 Tectonic Use of Reclaimed Timber https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73183 <p>Increasing the use of timber has been proposed as one step towards more sustainable architecture and construction. Timber's renewability and the capability to store carbon have dominated this discussion. At the same time, viewpoints related to material efficiency and recycling, equally important aspects to sustainability, have been neglected. Unfortunately, recycling wood can be challenging, and countries that already build a lot with timber tend to rely on incineration at the end of the life cycle. Reusing wood could, however, save emissions from manufacturing new timber and disposing of demolished timber and prolong the time the carbon stays sequestered. Embedded in new architectural ensembles, salvaged components could also transmit the past to the contemporary viewer and thus, result in more evocative architecture.</p> <p>Barriers preventing reuse in general have been documented in literature, but few solutions have been proposed. The obstacles include, among other things, inconsistent quality and quantity, difficulty of dimensional coordination and negative perception, which are all issues connected to design. This paper employs literature review and design simulation in addressing the challenges of architectural design from reclaimed timber. With the help of literature, the tectonic nature of reclaimed wood material is elaborated in more detail. The design simulation was conducted during a special timber architecture course with the help of 36 students, whose design projects form the empirical research material of the paper. Engaging in a discussion with literature and the research material, the study results in recognizing how reclaimed timber essentially differs from virgin timber and proposes ten design principles for managing the inconsistencies associated with the salvaged material.</p> <p>The presented discussion demonstrates that reclaimed materials should be considered as materials of their own; they should not be expected to simply comply with conventional construction methods and design practices. Since the salvaged components already exist, their architectural and structural design cannot be differentiated from each other. Therefore, tectonic expression endogenous to reclaimed materials needs to be developed in order to actuate their more widespread reuse. Whereas historical and vernacular construction methods withhold many insights for architectural design from reclaimed timber, contemporary computer-aided design offers novel tools for the execution of these ideas. The remarks of the paper are not only valid in Western contexts, but may be highly relevant for architects working in developing countries.</p> Satu Huuhka Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 130 151 Criteria to Evaluate the Quality of Building Envelope Retrofits https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73189 <p>The construction industry is progressively moving from designing and building new towards redesigning, upgrading and maintaining existing buildings. Concurrently, the increasing demand for urban renewal calls for architectural interventions. Success and the meeting of set goals is typically assessed using an established framework.</p> <p>Architectural tradition offers methodologies to evaluate built structures based on characteristics like build quality, engineering performance, functionality, spatial design, and effects on the living environment.However, in addition to these qualities, building refurbishments target energetic, economic, environmental and social improvements. They respond to complex requirements set by an extensive network of stakeholders. A qualitative building assessment based on architecture alone does not sufficiently reflect the aims of such processes, and a holistic means to analyze refurbishment designs is lacking.</p> <p>This paper presents a review of existing building assessment methodologies, and suggests a new, simple set of evaluation criteria for interventions on the building envelope. The proposal is demonstrated by assessing three cases illustrating different approaches to such processes. Evaluation results prove the usability of the method to assess the variation in extent and aims of implemented measures. Coupled with quantitative estimations, it could aid the decision making process in residential housing cooperatives. Future development should include further cases and more extensive building refurbishments.</p> Yrsa Cronhjort Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 152 164 Revitalizing New York’s East River Waterfront https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73190 <p>Urban waterfronts are undergoing significant transformations. In many Western cities former industrial sites are experiencing a renewal as they are being rebuilt for new uses. For a long period, many waterfronts in inner cities were used primarily as industrial zones and harbors, limiting the number of citizens living on the shore. However, in the future new urban maritime districts around the world will provide cities with more waterfront housing and leisure venues.</p> <p>The city of New York has already opened up access to miles of shoreline that had been closed off to the public for decades. Diverse waterfronts are now among the most important of the city’s resources. Open space, resiliency, living by the waterfront, transportation and in-water recreation are among the priorities for future development.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to look into current waterfront development along New York’s East River, map the activities and functions, and research the processes behind the development. The key question is what are the existing activities at the waterfront and what kind of approaches does the city have to face the future challenges at the coastline. The methods include field study, observation, data research, data analysis and interviews with key actors involved in the development processes in New York.</p> <p>This paper will contribute to the discussion on urban waterfront transformation and the experiences it provides. Emphasis is placed on urban planning, programming, cooperation and innovation in relation to the waterfront. Urban development is viewed as a condensation of activities, programs and networks. The themes include meantime strategies and collaboration strategies. The aim is to shed light on what lies beyond – the models and processes of waterfront development that create urban experiences.</p> Meri Louekari Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 165 179 Impervious Coverage in Finnish Single-Family House Plots https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73191 <p>Single-family house areas account for a significant percentage of the total square area of cities. Where statutory land use planning is concerned, single-family house areas and single-family house plots in Finland are usually addressed only in terms of housing, even though the impervious surfaces their construction creates also determine the cause of stormwater runoff and urban green spaces.</p> <p>This study will explore the specification of impervious surfaces in the single-family plots of modern-day Finland. Impervious surfaces are a key factor in causing stormwater runoff and the deterioration in the condition of catchment area streams. At the same time, impervious surfaces seal the ground surface and prevent vegetation from growing at each site. The research subject involved three plots in a housing fair area and their garden plan (N = 63), which represent sites completed in the same area. Housing fairs present individual consumers with the ideal of single-family housing as proposed by commercial developers.</p> <p>Permeable and impervious surfaces and their detailed breakdown into different surface types were measured in the plans. Although a considerable percentage of the impervious surface area in a modern-day Finnish plot is formed by garden surfaces, vehicle parking and various types of shelters and roofs also play a role in the formation of imperviousness. Used as a tool in statutory land use planning, plot density does not specify plot permeability, in which the roof square area is the primary factor. When defining the area of imperviousness, statutory land use planning could make use of the maximum allowable roof square area and/or the maximum allowable amount of impervious surface coverage as well as reduce the need for surfaced passageways by placing the parking space and residential building centrally within the plot. Setting guidelines for the amount of green space within a plot is more challenging, because the changing needs of residents significantly influence plot landscaping.</p> Outi Tahvonen Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 180 194 Affordances and Limitations of Cognitive Bias Reduction in Introductory Digital Design Pedagogy https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73192 <p>As digital design rapidly expands the disciplinary knowledge-base of related media, methods, and modes in architecture, cognition-based pedagogical strategies hold unique promise in introductory digital design education to increase knowledge transfer efficiency (i.e. learning) by aligning the learner’s natural schema-developmental processes with the inherent affordances of digital tooling methods. Through the employment of cognitive-based instructional strategies that seek to refine the designer’s own judgement and decision making processes, can academicians exploit the affordances of digital design technologies to enhance the architectural learning process in ways not possible in an analog age? This paper frames and explores cognitive bias mitigation as a pedagogical strategy that may increase knowledge transfer efficiency in digital design pedagogy by helping novice learners to mitigate common cognitive biases in the iterative design process. The literature that explores decision-making processes in design will be presented first. This foundational introduction will then be followed by an overview of the implications of early-stage design decision making in architectural learning environments. Cognitive biases particularly applicable to architectural design will be introduced with a distinct emphasis placed upon those that may be augmented or compounded in digital design environments. Cognitive limitations to architectural decision-makers such as projection bias, affective forecasting, and the hot/cold model will be explored in detail. Cognition-based pedagogical strategies that seek to refine the designer’s own judgement hold promise in the emerging field of digital design as progressive technologies and processes are plagued by missed opportunities for the learner’s own decision-making intellectual advancement. Theory and concepts from the decision sciences and digital design in architecture are cross-pollinated in this study.</p> Edward Becker Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 195 210 Architecture as Experience https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73188 <p>The complex phenomenon of architecture consists of too many irreconcilable and conflicting categories of thought, intention, emotion, interaction and action to be condensed into the framework of a single theory of architecture. Besides, art and architecture are constituted in their mental encounter and experience instead of the material works themselves. Works of architecture and art are encountered and lived rather than understood intellectually.</p> <p>Architecture is commonly understood, taught, practiced and evaluated primarily as a visual art form. However, we encounter buildings and environments through our entire sense of being. Perceptions interact with memory and imagination to constitute an experience with meaning and temporal duration. Art and architecture are essentially relational phenomena as they express our being in the world instead of themselves or their authors. The interest in architecture as experience also directs our attention to such diffuse and neglected experiences as atmospheres, ambiences, feelings, moods and attunements.</p> Juhani Pallasmaa Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 9 17 Hits and Misses https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73165 <p>This paper deals with ontological and epistemological questions about how music, listening and public spaces are intertwined. It introduces selected studies on environmental sounds including Soundscape Studies initiated in Vancouver and its relation to the Bauhaus art movement. Other research traditions presented here are based on the concept of how sound sensations, experiences and memories construct a place. They also state that when examining the relationship between urban sounds and spaces, a researcher should pay attention to the fact that no sound event can be isolated from the spatial and temporal conditions out of which the physical signal is propagated.</p> <p>Furthermore, the paper introduces the concept of transphonia, which refers to the mechanical, electro-acoustic and digital storage, moulding, reproduction and transmission of sound, and how this phenomenon constructs shared urban environments. When applied in public soundscapes, the sound-producing equipment, its applications and its musical content become political, and therefore negotiable. Thus, centripetal and centrifugal sounds which have been selected to attract certain consumer segments whilst repelling others are increasingly becoming the subject of scholarly interest because of their highly political nature. Such sounds are not only musical, but encompass other liked and disliked sounds.</p> <p>A case study on commercial radio and urban public spaces is used to shed light on different aspects of transphonia. It shows that radio music in urban public spaces is largely a side-issue for any the radio stations’ music policy, as their music is not selected with these spaces in mind. Nevertheless, it is evident that radio stations are relatively influential in constructing the sonic environments of shared spaces. This construction is in the hands of a few radio professionals, although it should be noted that these individuals’ positions are far from being monolithic, as they are subject to constantly changing economic, legislative and cultural circumstances. This suggests that a space composed of electro-acoustic sounds would be in constant transformation, too, and it would be a target of constant negotiation and struggle regarding its nature, e.g. in relation to the gender, class, age and socioeconomic status of its users.</p> Heikki Uimonen Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 18 28 Equality Quality https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73167 <p>A successful architectural project will eventually encourage countless people to work for change. Hollmén Reuter Sandman Architects and Ukumbi NGO strives to use architecture as a tool to improve the living conditions of underprivileged communities. The impacts of a successful building project in a low-resource setting can be seen as twofold, consisting of on-site and off-site effects. The architect’s ability to combine his or her expertise and experience with that of the locals is an important aspect for the success of the project. To employ local building traditions in the poorest countries of the world is not just a matter a justice, it is also a way to find different paths to our own future. It is usually not very difficult to introduce a new technology or new building developments; the challenging part is getting the new ideas to survive and take root in the long term.</p> Saija Hollmén Jenni Reuter Helena Sandman Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 29 35 Editorial Introduction https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73184 Pekka Passinmäki Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 6 8 Preface by Chief Editor https://journal.fi/architecturalresearchfinland/article/view/73185 Kimmo Lapintie Copyright (c) 0 2018-07-02 2018-07-02 2 1 5 5