Finnish Yearbook of Population Research <p class="esittely">is a peer reviewed, open access journal published by the Population Research Institute of the Family Federation of Finland (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Väestöliitto</a>) in collaboration with <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Finnish Demographic Society</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Institute of Migration</a>.</p> the Family Federation of Finland en-US Finnish Yearbook of Population Research 1796-6183 <p>Authors who publish with the Finnish Yearbook of Population Research agree to the following terms:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li>The license of the published metadata is Creative Commons CC0 4.0 Universal (<a href="" target="_blank">CC BY 4.0</a>)</li> </ul> Exploring the Future Population and Educational Dynamics in the Arctic: 2015 to 2050 <p>The Arctic is a geographical space surrounding the North Pole. It encompasses dozens of sub-national entities north of eight Arctic countries: Russia, Canada, Denmark, the United States, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is 20 million square kilometers land coverage settled with only 10 million people (2015). In the desire to learn more about the Arctic overall profile in population change, we aimed at producing cross-regional dataset covering all parts of the Arctic, and using it as a baseline for the cohort- component population projection. In this way, we model the future changes in the age, sex, and educational structure of sub-national populations, the latter reflecting the regional human capital. The projections are based on three alternative scenarios, taking into account regional characteristics (“Medium development”, “Arctic Boost”, and “Arctic Dip”). The results might be informative for those interested in the future dynamics of the Arctic population from 2015 forward to 2050.</p> Anastasia Emelyanova Copyright (c) 2019 Anastasia Emelyanova 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 53 1 24 10.23979/fypr.70159 Childlessness and social support in old age <p>This structured literature review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of literature on the topic of childlessness and social support in old age. In total, 33 articles that were published between January 2000 and July 2018 were reviewed. Articles to some extent covered topics of nonparents and their social support, social contacts, their social networks, and what are other socio-demographic factors that are possibly influencing these. There was no overall consensus on reviewed topics, but some findings emerged more frequently than others. Nonparents have smaller, but more diverse social networks, they seem to have less frequent social contacts with family, but they see friends and neighbours more often. Most articles depict childless as a&nbsp;vulnerable group with higher rates of loneliness. Childless elderly generally do not lack social support in forms of household help, yet their social networks appear to be less capable of providing intense care tasks. Among factors that also affect all above belong the cultural context, marital status, gender of the given individual, their age, and health status. Interestingly, within group of parents the family size, gender of children, and their proximity also play an important role in social support provision. This review also advices on a further study and development of the topic in the future.</p> Lenka Křenková Copyright (c) 2019 Lenka Křenková 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 53 25 50 10.23979/fypr.77931 Labour Market Status at Ages 50–64 and All-Cause Mortality at Ages 65–70 <p>Individuals’ labour market status and health are known to be highly correlated. To investigate this association beyond prime working ages, we study how all-cause mortality at ages 65–70 relates to different labour market positions at ages 50–64. The data stem from random samples of the Finnish population, which make it possible to follow 33,000 individuals in the period 1987–2011. Hazard models are estimated to quantify the associations. For both men and women, disability pensioners have a hazard of dying at age 65+ that is approximately twice that of persons who were employed, and this ratio still exceeds 1.5 when socioeconomic and demographic variables are included. Also male unemployment, but not female, is associated with an elevated mortality risk, but this interrelation depends greatly on socioeconomic position.</p> Julia Klein Jan Saarela Copyright (c) 2019 Julia Klein, Jan Saarela 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 53 51 72 10.23979/fypr.70216 Overweight and Obesity among Russian, Somali, and Kurdish Origin Populations in Finland <p>Previous studies have shown the prevalence of overweight and obesity to be higher in foreign-born populations than their native counterparts. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin populations in Finland in comparison with the general population, and determining which background factors associate with overweight and obesity. Data from the Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu) were used. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was as high as 73% in Somali and 65% in Kurdish origin women. In contrast, Somali origin men had a significantly lower prevalence of overweight and obesity than men in the general population. Health promotion measures must be addressed towards decreasing the prevalence of overweight and obesity particularly among Somali and Kurdish origin women. Foreign-born people need to be taken into account when planning and implementing obesity prevention programs.</p> Natalia Skogberg Adam Adam Tarja Kinnunen Eero Lilja Anu Castaneda Copyright (c) 2019 Natalia Skogberg, Adam Adam, Tarja Kinnunen, Eero Lilja, Anu Castaneda 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 53 73 88 10.23979/fypr.74417 Enhancing Survey Participation among Foreign-Born Populations <p>The Finnish Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu) is the first large-scale population-based health examination survey among the foreign-born population in Finland, unique also at the European level. It provides information on wellbeing of three major foreign-born groups: Russian, Somali, and Kurdish. In data collection, extra effort was put into reaching the sampled persons (n=3,000), for example by recruiting bilingual personnel to carry out the data collection, reaching participation rates as high as 70%, 51%, and 63%, respectively. A comparison group of the general population was available from a general population survey. The main challenges in fieldwork included reaching sampled persons, supervision of the fieldwork personnel, and special linguistic or cultural needs. Our experiences show that participation rate can be improved by engaging the target groups in all stages of the survey process and using several recruitment strategies, ending up with succeeding in pointing out health inequalities in the population.</p> Anu Castaneda Shadia Rask Tommi Härkänen Teppo Juntunen Natalia Skogberg Mulki Mölsä Hanna Tolonen Seppo Koskinen Copyright (c) 2019 Anu Castaneda 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 53 89 110 10.23979/fypr.74048 Serial migrants and one-time migrants <p>Europe is home to a globally unique area, where it is possible for the majority of Europeans to study, work, or retire in a wide geographical area. Based on two consecutive online surveys and 18 biographical interviews, the article examines the experiences of young, highly educated Finns living abroad in 12 EU countries. The article focuses on two types of migrants: one-time migrants with limited previous international experience and serial migrants with mobility capital accumulated during previous international experiences. The article concludes that this mobility capital, is a major factor influencing the likelihood of onward migration. The article also contributes to the understanding of Europe as a transnational area where various forms of mobility coexist as mobile Europeans look for study and career opportunities and suitable lifestyles abroad.</p> Saara Koikkalainen Copyright (c) 2019 Saara Koikkalainen 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 53 111 130 10.23979/fypr.73269 Book review <p>Antti Kujala &amp; Mirkka Danielsbacka <br>Reciprocity in Human Societies. From Ancient Times to the Modern Welfare State. Palgrave Macmillan 2019</p> Hans Hämäläinen Copyright (c) 2019 Hans Hämäläinen 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 53 131 132 10.23979/fypr.85216