Finnish Yearbook of Population Research <p class="esittely">is a peer reviewed, open access journal published by the Population Research Institute of the Family Federation of Finland (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Väestöliitto</a>) in collaboration with <a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Finnish Demographic Society</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Institute of Migration</a>.</p> the Family Federation of Finland en-US Finnish Yearbook of Population Research 1796-6183 <p>Authors who publish with the Finnish Yearbook of Population Research agree to the following terms:</p> <ul type="disc"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li>The license of the published metadata is Creative Commons CC0 4.0 Universal (<a href="" target="_blank">CC BY 4.0</a>)</li> </ul> The Association Between Gendered Workplaces and the Length of Childcare Leave <p>Previous research indicates that mothers base the length of their childcare leave on individual opportunity costs. While workplace dynamics and peer influences may affect the duration of the leave, empirical evidence remains inconclusive. This study investigates the association between childcare leave length and workplace characteristics, as well as peer influences in the Finnish institutional context. In Finland, mothers can extend their earnings-related childcare leave with a flat-rate home care allowance until their child turns three years old. At the same time, they are entitled to subsidised day care, allowing them to choose the length of their childcare leave. Our results show that, in the gender-segregated Finnish labour market, the length of childcare leave among mothers varies based on employment sector, number of employees, peers’ leave length, and the share of women in the workplace.</p> Eva Österbacka Tapio Räsänen Copyright (c) 2024 Eva Österbacka, Tapio Räsänen 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 1 20 10.23979/fypr.131786 Seasonality of Birth Weight in Singleton Full-term Births in Finland <p>Seasonal birth weight has been identified across different climate zones. Finland has wide seasonal and regional variation in climate within the country. We explore the potential seasonality of birth weight in singleton full-term births in Finland, and its variations across time and within the country. We apply descriptive time-series graphs, linear regression across regions, and linear regression with mother fixed effects using Finnish register data consisting of more than 1,800,000 infants born from 1987 to 2021. The descriptive findings indicate a decline in birth weight from 1987 to 2021. A monthly seasonal trend with peaks in spring and autumn and troughs in summer and winter is observed. The pattern gets less distinct with time and shows within-country variations. The seasonal pattern is also present when applying mother fixed effects. We suggest that the seasonal variation is more related to variations in climate than stable characteristics at the family level.</p> Hilde Orderud Niko Eskelinen Matti Lindberg Copyright (c) 2024 Hilde Orderud, Niko Eskelinen, Matti Lindberg 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 21 46 10.23979/fypr.136379 Residential mobility and suicide in Belgium <p>Using Belgian administrative datasets (National Register, Census, and death certificates) on individuals aged 20–64 (N=7,246,740 individuals and 4,109 suicides), the study examined the association between mobility and suicide in the context of union transitions and different life stages. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that, in general, moving was associated with an increased risk of suicide than immobility, except for moves in the context of union transitions. Additionally, results highlighted that union dissolutions were associated with a higher risk of suicide – regardless of residential mobility. Moreover, mobility (compared to immobility) for individuals who were in stable situations (single or partnered) or who were in their mid-adulthood was associated with higher risks of suicide. Finally, middle-aged adults (aged 40–54) presented higher suicide risks in all cases of residential mobility, including if accompanied by union transitions.</p> Joan Damiens Copyright (c) 2024 Joan Damiens 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 47 80 10.23979/fypr.130971 Attitudes Towards Filial Responsibility in 11 European Countries <p>This study examines how attitudes towards filial responsibility (AFR) have changed in 11 European countries between 2001 and 2017, based on data from the International Social Survey Programme. These countries include various types of welfare states and family traditions. The study also analyses the change in AFR according to the respondents’ gender and age. The findings indicate that in 2017, individuals reported lower filial responsibility than in 2001, with the exception of Great Britain, where the AFR increased. The most substantial decreases in AFR were observed in Hungary, France, Denmark, and Finland. This negative shift is visible in both genders and all age groups, particularly late middle-aged women. However, despite the varying intensity of AFR change, it was challenging to identify clear patterns in the variations between countries. These results highlight potential negative effects on political proposals for long-term care for older adults supported by younger generations.</p> Juha Kääriäinen Mirkka Danielsbacka Antti Tanskanen Copyright (c) 2024 Juha Kääriäinen, Mirkka Danielsbacka, Antti Tanskanen 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 81 106 10.23979/fypr.132000 Counting on parents or others? <p>This study explores the associations between receiving social support from network members other than individuals’ parents and fertility intentions in Finland. It additionally examines whether support from others can compensate for the lack of parental support or complement their support. Using logistic regression models applied to Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) data on individuals aged 18–45 years enriched with administrative registers, we found that Finns who received instrumental support from others were more likely to intend to have a child. Support from others did not compensate for, nor complement, a lack of parental support or parental geographic remoteness. However, among men with at least one parent deceased or unknown, those receiving emotional support from others were more likely to intend to have a child within three years (and as likely as individuals with both parents alive) than those not receiving this support, suggesting a compensatory mechanism.</p> Alyona Artamonova Tiia Sorsa Venla Berg Anna Erika Hägglund Anna Rotkirch Copyright (c) 2024 Alyona (Alena) Artamonova, Tiia Sorsa, Venla Berg, Anna Erika Hägglund, Anna Rotkirch 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 165 190 10.23979/fypr.131297 Change in Marriage Behaviour in North-Central Namibia 1925–2009 <p>Namibia is the only country in Africa for which historical data is available to describe the change in marriage behavior since the 1920s. The aim of this article is to describe and to understand how the age at first marriage changed and how it was related to cohabitation since the 1920s in Namibia. The description of changes is based on parish register material and the family reconstitution method. The mean age at first marriage was over 20 for both sexes as early as the 1920s. In 1945–49, the mean age at first marriage started to increase, reaching about 29 for men and 24 for women at the end of the 1950s. The explanation for the increase was labor migration. The new cohabitation model was introduced from the end of the 1970s to the 1980s. Features of this model were cohabitation before marriage, late marriage age, a low married proportion of the population and high proportion of premarital births.</p> Veijo J Notkola Harri Siiskonen Riikka Shemeikka Copyright (c) 2024 Veijo J Notkola, Harri Siiskonen, Riikka Shemeikka 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 191 212 10.23979/fypr.131375 Book review <p>Harden, K. P. (2021). The Genetic Lottery: Why DNA Matters for Social equality. Princeton University Press.</p> Simo Arhippainen Copyright (c) 2024 Simo Arhippainen 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 213 216 10.23979/fypr.129568 Book review <p>Weekes-Shackelford, V. A., &amp; Shackelford, T. K. (eds.). (2021). The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology and Parenting. New York: Oxford University Press.</p> Hannu Lehti Copyright (c) 2024 Hannu Lehti 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 217 220 10.23979/fypr.125515 The first Generations and Gender Survey in Finland <p>The first Generations and Gender Survey in Finland was collected in 2021/2022 as a web-based survey. In addition to the standard GGS-questionnaire, the Finnish survey included two new modules: the Miller Instrument, which captures childbearing motivations, and Global uncertainties, which enquires about perceptions of future threats. To further advance research on family dynamics, data from GGS Finland is linked to administrative records. This allows researchers to explore employment and family trajectories until 2026. Analyses of core socio-demographic characteristics and well-established fertility indicators reveal that the sample, by and large, represents the target population.</p> Anna Hägglund Tiia Sorsa Venla Berg Anna Rotkirch Copyright (c) 2024 Anna Hägglund, Tiia Sorsa, Venla Berg, Anna Rotkirch 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 107 126 10.23979/fypr.142715 The Estonian Generations and Gender Survey 2020: <p>In Estonia, the Generations and Gender Survey 2020 (GGS-II) is the third large-scale demographic survey that collects data on family and fertility dynamics. As the country participates in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, the GGS-II opted for a shorter age range of the sample (18–59). The questionnaire in the GGS-II in Estonia follows the GGS-II wave 1 baseline questionnaire. The questionnaire also includes the Global Uncertainties’ module developed by the Nordic countries, a battery of questions on the perceived impact of COVID-19, and several country-specific items. The GGS-II in Estonia was implemented using only computer-assisted web interviewing (CAWI). In this article, we present a concise overview of the sampling and data collection process, analyse representativeness and response rates, and briefly assess the data quality. We conclude that despite low response rates, the GGS-II provides a good basis for the analysis of fertility and family dynamics.</p> Allan Puur Luule Sakkeus Liili Abuladze Mark Gortfelder Martin Klesment Leen Rahnu Tiina Tambaum Copyright (c) 2024 Allan Puur, Luule Sakkeus, Liili Abuladze, Mark Gortfelder, Martin Klesment, Leen Rahnu, Tiina Tambaum 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 127 144 10.23979/fypr.141918 The Swedish Generations and Gender Survey 2021 <p>The Swedish Generations and Gender Survey 2021 (GGS2021) was the second GGS that Sweden carried out. It was a web-based survey with a paper-based option. Like the first GGS in Sweden (GGS2012) it was linked to register data that cover key dimensions of respondents’ life courses. The Swedish GGS2021 contains two new modules implemented to further research on the link between subjective perceptions and fertility. Both modules will be part of the second wave of the international GGS standard questionnaire. In this contribution, we first describe our motivation to carry out the Swedish<br />GGS2021. We then present our two new modules and sketch their theoretical underpinnings. This is followed by a summary of the data collection process and an assessment of data quality. We conclude with some reflections on the implementation of new modules in future international GGSs and on our experience with register-linked surveys.</p> Gerda Neyer Gunnar Andersson Johan Dahlberg Copyright (c) 2024 Gerda Neyer, Gunnar Andersson, Johan Dahlberg 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 145 164 10.23979/fypr.137453