Iskos Archaeological seminar papers and doctoral dissertations The Finnish Antiquarian Society en-US Iskos 0355-3108 Preface Juhani Kostet Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 4–5 4–5 For the Reader Petri Halinen Jouni Taivainen Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 6 6 Periodization and Chronology of the Eneolithic in the Upper and Middle Kama Regions <p>The territory of the Upper and Middle Kama regions is important for study on account of the Turbino sites that have been open there. Artifacts of this type have also been found in Finland. Subsequently, there have been several topics of discussion. Some archaeologists considered the Garino cultural complexes to be from an earlier period, while others supposed that they had appeared simultaneously with the Bor cultural type. The single radiocarbon dates were only obtained for the Garino culture. Therefore, the periodization and chronology of the Eneolithic in the Kama region have not been developed. In recent years, new archaeological sites have been excavated and a series of radiocarbon dates have been obtained for both types of cultures. This allowed us to work out the periodization and chronology of the Eneolithic of the Upper and Middle Kama regions in more detail. The chronological framework of the Garino culture was determined from 4500 BP to 3500 BP (ca. 3500-1600 calBC). The sites of the Bor cultural type were occupied from 4200 BP to 3900 BP (ca. 3000-2200 calBC). Thus, the chronological priority of the Garino culture is established. According to the typological and chronological framework, two stages in the development of the Garino culture were elaborated. The coexistence of the Garino and Bor complexes had a place at the end of the early stage of the Garino culture.</p> Aleksandr A. Vybornov Eugeniya L. Lychagina Marianna A. Kulkova Andrey F. Melnichuk Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 7–20 7–20 Kharlovka 1-6 on the Kola Peninsula: One of the Oldest Gressbakken House Sites in Northern Fennoscandia <p>The remains of a semi-subterranean house were discovered at the Kharlovka 1-6 site on the Barents Sea coast of the Kola Peninsula, Russia. Despite suffering from erosion, features such as a double stone-boarded hearth and chimney pipe together with diagnostic finds allow us to attribute the house to the so-called Gressbakken type. The artefact assemblage includes stone tools, bone and antler tools and adornments, asbestos-tempered pottery, an amber pendant and a copper tubular bead. Numerous faunal remains are primarily represented by marine species of mammals and birds. Radiocarbon dates on charcoal point to the period 2600–2300 calBC, which is also supported by the artefact types, elevation of the cultural layer and construction type of the house. When accounting for the early dates of Kharlovka 1-6 and several other dwellings, it can be assumed that the Gressbakken house tradition emerged around 2600–2300 calBC. This date is somewhat earlier than previously thought.</p> Evgeniy M. Kolpakov Anton I. Murashkin Alevtina M. Kiseleva Vladimir Ya. Shumkin Kristiina Mannermaa Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 21–42 21–42 The Use of Mineral Raw Materials in Lithic Knapping in Stone Age Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland <p>Although quartz predominates in Stone Age knapped assemblages in Finland, the selection of raw materials was not similar throughout the period. This article takes a closer look at the choice of lithic raw materials in Northern Ostrobothnia (Finland) during the 6th–3rd millennia calBC. It demonstrates that changes in lithic raw materials and other cultural development, including pottery production, do not always go hand in hand. A comparison of Northern Ostrobothnia with the Lake Saimaa area shows that there are certain similarities in lithic assemblages (raw material use and technology) during some cultural phases despite the different local raw material base, although diverging trends and regional variation can also be identified.</p> Teemu Mökkönen Kerkko Nordqvist Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 43–59 43–59 Stone Age Settlements in the Pskov Region (Northwest Russia): A Review of Old Materials and New Fieldwork <p>The paper presents an overview of the Stone Age materials discovered in the central and northern parts of the Pskov district (Northwest Russia). There are 15 sites where stone and ceramic materials were identified. Some materials from the sites were lost, while others were identified only by artefacts from quartz, flint or ceramic fragments, which renders their cultural identification questionable. The most representative collection from the territory discussed was obtainned from site 10 near the lake of Belaya Struga with stone (flint, slate, quartz) and ceramic artefacts. Analogies for pottery could be traced among Typical Comb Ware materials in Latvia, Estonia and the nearest Russian territories (Leningrad district), dating to the 5th millennium-4th millennium BC. Some micro-blades and micro-scrapers were also discovered, which could perhaps be attributed to the Mesolithic period. Further studies in this region seem promising in terms of searching for the cultural layer “in situ” of both the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.</p> Evgeniia S. Tkach Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 60–67 60–67 Excavations of Bronze Age Burial Cairns near the Village of Bolshoy Bor in 2017 (Northern Coast of the Gulf of Finland) <p>In 2017, an expedition of History of Material Culture (IIMK) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) investigated a group of stone cairns situated near the village of Bolshoy Bor on the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The group in question consisted of four mounds located on a granite rock corresponding to the ancient seashore. In total, three cairns have been investigated, as along with the stone structures surrounding them. Over the course of the investigations, it was revealed that the objects were stone cairns dating to the Bronze Age. Inside the cairns, the remains of bonfires, accumulations of calcined bones and accompanying grave goods (a bronze knife) were uncovered. These findings suggest that the site was a funerary and ritual complex. In addition, elements of stone masonry were found in the cairns, viz. stone crepis walls constructed of massive boulders, circular structures, etc.</p> Andrey Gorodilov Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 68–82 68–82 The Long-Period Dwelling Site of Multavieru at Lake Höytiäinen in North Karelia – Approaching Questions in the Municipalities of Polvijärvi, Kontiolahti, Joensuu and Liperi <p>The starting point of the paper is the dwelling site of Multavieru, located near the Kiskonjoki River, on the NW side of Lake Höytiäinen in North Karelia. The remains of a dwelling-site area were found in a zone of ca 350 m long and not larger than 80 m wide near the Kiskonjoki River. Multavieru was discovered in 1969 and it has been investigated several times; in addition, it was studied twice by way of teaching excavation by the department of archaeology, the University of Helsinki. The habitation at the site covers the whole Neolithic and Early Metal Age times. A considerable part of the finds implied remains of Medieval Period and iron smelting dating to the 17th and 18th centuries AD. The article illuminates the prehistory and changes in habitation near Lake Höytiäinen from the late Mesolithic to the 20th century AD. The second question addresses the sites close to Multavieru, together with their finds, because this indicates the ongoing changes of culture during the lengthy period under study. Finally, the article addresses the history of the area around Lake Höytiäinen, because many features in the culture have changed considerably, although the area itself has not been considered as very significant, when trying to understand the prehistory of Finland.</p> Mika Lavento Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 83–101 83–101 Archaeological Survey of the Outer Islands of the Gulf of Finland in 2019 <p>In 2019, an expedition of the Institute for the History of Material Culture (IIMK) RAS conducted archaeological surveys on the following islands in the archipelago of Vneshniye Ostrova (Outer Islands, Finnish: Suomenlahden ulkosaaret) in the Gulf of Finland: Moshchny Island (Lavansaari), Maly (Peninsaari), Seskar (Seiskari) and Yuzhny Virgin (Itä-Viiri). Familiar sites were re-examined and new ones were revealed. On Moshchny Island, a cairn, a burial ground, a Bronze Age – Early Iron Age settlement, a stone foundation of a church of the Modern Period and a group of stone heaps were discovered. On Yuzhny Virgin island, stone structures including labyrinths, circles and heaps of stone were examined. The studied sites are culturally close to the antiquities of the northern littoral of the Gulf of Finland (the Vyborg region of Leningrad oblast and southeastern Finland).</p> Maria A. Razzak Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 102–113 102–113 Some Results of the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Archaeological Sites of Staraya Ladoga <p>In recent years, a multidisciplinary approach has been applied to the results of archaeological excavations in Staraya Ladoga. This article provides a short list of works that have been carried out in the investigations of the occupation layers and findings. The article also provides references to publications based on the results of interdisciplinary research.</p> Natalia V. Grigoreva Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 114–123 114–123 Here be Reindeer: Geoarchaeological Approaches to the Transspecies Lifeworlds of the Sámi Reindeer Herder Camps on the Tundra <p>In this paper we present ongoing geoarchaeological research of Sámi reindeer pastoralist campsites. The discussion is based on three case study sites situated at the Lake Gilbbesjávri region (Finland) in northern Sápmi. All the sites are historical-period reindeer herder camps, likely used as temporary summer encampments by the nomadic herders in the 17th–19th centuries. The sites were prospected with systematic soil sampling and geoarchaeological analyses, which have been previously successfully applied in the study of Sámi habitation sites on both intrasite and intra-dwelling levels. The changes in the soil phosphate, pH and electric conductivity values were analysed and interpreted based on ethnographic analogies. These allow insight into the outwardly invisible taskscapes and spatialities of the herders and their animals at the campsites. The different geoarchaeological factors highlight differing aspects of the use of space at the historical Sámi reindeer pastoralist campsites, such as potential reindeer corralling areas, and provide comparative material for the analyses of prehistoric Sámi hunter-gatherer-herder sites.</p> Oula Seitsonen Natalia Égüez Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 124–145 124–145 Archaeological Discovery of Medieval Vyborg. The Town Development in the 15th-17th Centuries According to the Materials Obtained during the Archaeological Excavations in 1998-2012 <p>The Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IIMK RAN, St. Petersburg) carried out rescue and research excavations in different parts of the historical centre of Vyborg in 1998-2013. The Karjalaisen Kulttuurin Edistämissäätiö (KKES) foundation played a major role in the success of the excavations on account of its part in funding the work. The second essential matter was that we used local young people as the workforce from the very beginning, and a significant share of them continued working in the following years as well. This played a major role in improving the viewpoints of local people, because it demonstrated how valuable the cultural layers (wooden constructions, artefact finds) of Vyborg are.</p> <p>The peculiarity of the original bedrock surface with its hollows and hills was already clear in the beginning of the research. As there was little room for construction activities on the slopes of the central town hill, the builders of the town had to fill the rock hollows with the cultural layers of previous times (fires were a regular occurrence in the city) and leftover wood chips from intensive construction activities. There is valuable information about the early stages of the history of Vyborg; in all likelihood, the town cape was already occupied before the Swedes arrived. What seems to have happened is that this native population was absorbed into the population of the emerging town. The natives’ main livelihoods were fishing and animal husbandry, and their products happened to be in high demand within the castle and also among the builders of the city wall. Excavations of the plot and in other parts of the town have revealed no finds dating back further than 1410. The excavations carried out so far show that the town, established on the cape, was destroyed so thoroughly by the Novgorodians in 1411 that it had to be rebuilt from the ground up.</p> Aleksandr I. Saksa Copyright (c) 2021 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 24 146–160 146–160