Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica sv-FI Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 0373-6873 More wood but less biodiversity in forests in Finland: a historical evaluation <p>National forest inventories (NFI) in Finland provide empirical evidence for a marked increase in tree growth, total forest area, and total timber volume over the past century. Meanwhile, the assessments of threatened forest species and habitats indicate continuous degradation of biodiversity in Finnish forests. To shed light on this seeming paradox, we summarized the temporal patterns of forest characteristics (indicators) that have major influence on biodiversity, comparing the structure of current Finnish forests with natural and historical references. Using a variety of data sources, we estimated the proportion of area of old-growth forest and of deciduous-dominated forests, the density of large trees, and the amount of dead wood in Finnish forests under natural reference conditions, in the 1750s, 1920s (NFI1), and 2010s (NFI12). Our results show that levels of the forest structures essential to maintain ecologically diverse forests are below those that likely prevailed in Finland under natural reference conditions and in the 1750s. This scarcity is particularly pronounced for dead wood volumes and old forest area. The marked increase in the volume of living trees during the last century did not translate into improved biodiversity indicators and has not been effective for turning the tide of biodiversity loss in Finnish forests. We discuss actions that are necessary to safeguard forest biodiversity in Finland both in terms of protected areas and management in production forest.</p> Mikko Mönkkönen Tuomas Aakala Clemens Blattert Daniel Burgas Rémi Duflot Kyle Eyvindson Jari Kouki Toni Laaksonen Pekka Punttila Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 98 Supplement 2 1 11 What do birds tell us about recent changes in the environment? <p>The loss of biodiversity has become an increasingly important topic of societal discussions. However, measuring biodiversity loss is not easy compared to for instance documenting the other environmental crisis, the climate change. Therefore, different tools are needed to measure whether biodiversity has changed, and how it reflects known habitat changes and possible conservation actions. Birds have been used in many countries as indicators of environmental status. There are several reasons for this. There is a large number of bird enthusiasts around the world who collect data on species. This has led to the accumulation of a considerable amount of long-term data on birds, and the amount of data is increasing every year. Because birds are at the top of the food chain, which means that their numbers are likely to reflect changes at lower trophic levels. Birds are also ubiquitous in a variety of environments and every human knows something about birds, which greatly facilitates the popularisation of science and communication of the impacts of habitat change.</p> Aleksi Lehikoinen Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 98 Supplement 2 12 16 The impact of climate change on species in Finland <p>Climatic conditions constitute the very defining dimensions of abiotic conditions for biodiversity. Now these fundamental settings are changing at rapid pace, and this transformation is not only something looming around the corner, but the change is already here. In this summary I want to emphasize the responses through which species can adjust to a change in climate and I will describe some signatures of the effect of climate change on the fauna and flora in Finland.</p> Maria Hällfors Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 98 Supplement 2 17 26 What can the long-term ecological monitoring of the Åland islands meadow network tell us about changes in Finnish nature? <p>Human induced changes in land use and in climate are having severe impact on natural populations and communities, as evidenced by recently reported declines in insects. Quantifying change and understanding the drivers underlying these changes requires long-term systematically monitored ecological data. The occurrence and abundance of the Glanville fritillary (<em>Melitaea cinxia</em>) butterfly in the Åland islands has been monitored across the 4 000 potential habitat patches continuously since 1993. This classic metapopulation has become an ecological model system in understanding how species persist in fragmented landscape. Due to the systematic long-term survey, we are now beginning to see also how on-going changes related to climate are affecting the ecology and population dynamics of the butterfly. As many other butterflies globally and in Finland, the Glanville fritillary butterfly also shows declining population trends in the Åland islands. In addition, the metapopulation fluctuations have become more synchronous in space with especially dry and warm summers having the most negative effect on the species overall.</p> Marjo Saastamoinen Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-09-29 2022-09-29 98 Supplement 2 27 33 Rethinking research: the role of tradition in the study of marine invertebrates <p>Scientific tradition is a key-element behind innovation and novelty in science. Relying on tradition provides a sense of security for the individual researcher but may also hamper scientific progress. By rethinking and reformulating previously stated research-topics and questions, science can profit from already existing data and knowledge. For this, however, a conceptual framework for critical thinking must exist for exchange of scientific ideas and findings. Tradition and critical thinking supply the framework for understanding data collected today in relation to previously accumulated information and scientific knowledge. This paper reflects upon these processes from the perspective of marine biological studies on soft-sediment invertebrates in Finland during the past 100 years exemplified by the works of Sven G. Segerstråle, with his education rooted in the old and traditional, and yet daring to think and work in innovative pathways.</p> Erik Bonsdorff Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 98 Supplement 2 34 39 The changing fauna and flora of Finland – discovering the bigger picture through long-term data <p>To discern changes in nature during the current era of unprecedented biodiversity change, there is no alternative to systematic long-term data collection efforts. Finland holds a globally unique treasure trove of long-term ecological data series, each springing from its own origins, purposes and approaches. If sensibly used, these data provide a unique baseline for what was before, insight into current directions of change, and a scientifically sound foundation for informed policies. To leverage the mobilisation of these data, we conduct a basic SWOT analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats associated with our national data treasure. As Strengths, we identify the globally unique extent, depth and coverage of data. As Weaknesses, we identify the fragmented nature of data storage, access, and taxonomic coverage. As Opportunities, we show how new syntheses spanning across decades and taxa may reveal both the extent of and mechanisms behind biodiversity change. As Threats, we point to the alarming lack of long-term funding, legislation and coordination of these time series. We conclude that these data provide a unique potential for informing relevant policies – and that this potential can only be secured, tapped and maintained by transformative changes in national monitoring strategies, funding and legislation.</p> Tomas Roslin Anna-Liisa Laine Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 98 Supplement 2 40 53 Biodiversity loss, consumption and telecoupling – Why do we need to look beyond our borders? <p>Biodiversity loss is advancing rapidly, and the previous international goals for halting biodiversity loss have not been met. Besides protecting biodiversity within, e.g. Finland, it is essential to understand that our current way of life is causing global biodiversity loss through, for example, overconsumption. The current paper aims to increase understanding of the complex multi-level human impacts beyond our borders, resulting in significant global challenges. We discuss biodiversity loss and consumption with telecoupling, a phenomenon related to the geographical separation of consumption and production of goods and services that accelerates climate change and biodiversity loss in distant locations through international trade.</p> Ilari E. Sääksjärvi Misteli Tuominen Juulia Räikkönen Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 98 Supplement 2 54 58 Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica – 200 years. A survey of the activities 1997–2021 <p>When <em>Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica</em> celebrated its 175 years jubilee, Professor Henrik Wallgren wrote an outline about the Society´s activity since the foundation of the Society in 1821.</p> <p>This report will concentrate on the activities of the <em>Society</em> during the last 25 years. Annual reports in Finnish and Swedish on the <em>Society’s</em> activities and in Swedish on the activities taking place at the Nåtö Biological Station have been published every year in Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica.</p> <p>The focus of the <em>Society</em> has changed during the years. Three main fields of activity have continued over the years, namely the arrangement of one main conference about a specific topic per year, supporting students and young scientists with scholarships and the scientific work performed at the Nåtö Biological Station in the Åland Islands.</p> Carl-Adam Hæggström Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-12-05 2022-12-05 98 Supplement 2 59 70 Preface Anon. Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 98 Supplement 2 I XXXVIII Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 200 years Henry Väre (ed.) Copyright (c) 2022 Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 98 Supplement 2