Studia Orientalia Electronica 2019-03-21T14:26:16+02:00 Albion M. Butters Open Journal Systems <p><em>Studia Orientalia</em> is an internationally recognized publication series of Asian and African studies. It is published by the Finnish Oriental Society. In addition to monographs and thematic collections of articles, some volumes have been regularly dedicated to high-quality articles on all fields of Asian and African studies. In fact, the first volume of <em>Studia Orientalia</em> in 1925 was such an article volume.<br>From the beginning of 2013, these article volumes have&nbsp;appeared in this new publication series, <em>Studia Orientalia Electronica</em>. StOrE is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal with continuous submission. With this new journal we hope to reach a wider&nbsp; audience and also speed up our publication process.</p> The Mirror in Vedic India: Its Ancient Use and Its Present Relevance in Dating Texts 2019-03-21T14:26:16+02:00 Asko Parpola <p>The major first part of the paper collects as exhaustively as possible all references to 'mirror' occurring in Vedic literature (c. 1200-300 BCE), and presents them with sufficient context in Sanskrit and English in order to show how and why the mirror was used in Vedic rituals and Vedic culture in general, and what meaning was ascribed to it. The second part of the paper discusses a fact of major significance that emerges from this recording: in the extensive older Vedic literature of the Saṃhitās, Brāhmaṇas and Śrautasūtras (excepting the late Kātyāyana-Śrautasūtra) there is no reference to the mirror at all. Therefore it seems likely that the mirror was not known in Vedic India until it was introduced to South Asia from the Persian Empire at the end of the sixth century BCE. The later Vedic literature, starting possibly with the Āraṇyakas, but definitely with the early Upaniṣads, postdates 500 BCE. So far we have lacked a similar firm date for Vedic literature.</p> 2019-03-01T08:09:19+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Diffusion of Democracy among Civil Society Actors in Guangdong Province 2019-03-21T14:26:10+02:00 Gustav Johan Sundqvist <p class="StOr-Quotation">In recent years, a great number of studies have convincingly shown that diffusion influences states’ probability to democratise. The primary interest of most of these studies has been on how diffusion influences democracy at the national level. The effect of democratic diffusion on the local level has largely been neglected. This paper thus investigates how and to what extent diffusion influences the density and conflict orientation of non-governmental labour organisations (LNGOs), comprising a typical case of civil society groups channelling democratic freedoms, in China’s Guangdong province. Since the province is close to the relatively liberal city of Hong Kong, there is reason to believe that support from international civil society groups based in Hong Kong may be critical for the survival and growth of conflict-oriented LNGOs in Guangdong. In the article, the research question is studied by both comparative analysis of cross-regional data and qualitative analysis of interview data. Both methods confirm that diffusion – or, more precisely, diffusion through international civil society networks – is a prominent factor for explaining the density and conflict orientation of LNGOs in Guangdong. The study demonstrates that democratic diffusion not only has an impact at the state level but also on the regional, intrastate level.</p> 2019-03-15T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##