Studia Orientalia Electronica <p><em>Studia Orientalia</em> is an internationally recognized publication series of Asian and African studies. It is published by the Finnish Oriental Society. In addition to monographs and thematic collections of articles, some volumes have been regularly dedicated to high-quality articles on all fields of Asian and African studies. In fact, the first volume of <em>Studia Orientalia</em> in 1925 was such an article volume.</p> <p>From the beginning of 2013, these article volumes have&nbsp;appeared in this new publication series, <em>Studia Orientalia Electronica</em>. StOrE is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal with continuous submission. With this new journal we hope to reach a wider audience and also speed up our publication process.</p> Finnish Oriental Society en-US Studia Orientalia Electronica 2323-5209 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Review of J.J. de Ridder, Descriptive Grammar of Middle Assyrian Salvatore Gaspa Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Orientalia Electronica 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 9 1 132 137 10.23993/store.111119 Rudra Mahāvīra: Vrātya Elements in the Vedic Pravargya-Complex <p>This study reviews the arguments of previous publications, and adds new ones, for establishing connections between the Vedic <em>pravargya</em>-complex (the rituals, stanzas, and mythology of the <em>pravargya</em>), the <em>vrātya</em>, and the deity Rudra. These connections include Rudra as Mahāvīra (the epithet given to a deity and a vessel in the<em> pravargya</em>), the <em>sattra</em> setting of the <em>pravargya</em>’s paradigm-myth, the motif of the unstrung bow, the theme of exclusion, and the divinisation of man as a goal of the ritual. It is argued that the superhuman status attributed to Mahāvīra is comparable with that of characters celebrated in the Ṛgveda and Atharvaveda, such as the <em>ekavrātya</em>, <em>brahmacārin</em>, and <em>keśin</em>. The affinity between these figures may be derived from a common ideology, with the roots of some of them to be sought in the Indo-European warrior-society and male <em>rites de passage</em>.</p> Kristoffer af Edholm Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Orientalia Electronica 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 9 1 1 30 10.23993/store.85398 Notes on the Modal Predicator naada in Sakha (from a Taimyr Dolgan Perspective) <p>This paper addresses the syntax, semantics, and history of the modal deontic predictors <em>naada </em>and <em>tustaax </em>in Sakha and contrasts their use with Sakha's closest linguistic relative Taimyr Dolgan. In this respect, this study is a continuation of Siegl (2019), which, in passing, already reported similarities and dissimilarities in these two closely related Turkic languages of Northern and Northeastern Siberia. A contrastive analysis based on recent translations of the Gospel of Luke (which for the time being is the only longer text available in both languages) confirms that the genealogical proximity of Sakha and Taimyr Dolgan is not reflected in the use of <em>naada </em>and <em>tustaax</em>. The study concludes with a superficial look at the fate of Russian <em>nado </em>in Kolyma and Tundra Yukaghir. Even though the lexeme is obviously of Russian origin, Kolyma Yukaghir but especially Tundra Yukaghir data shows several similarities with Sakha <em>naada</em>, which are absent from Russian and therefore imply Sakha influence.</p> Florian Siegl Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Orientalia Electronica 2021-09-12 2021-09-12 9 1 31 65 10.23993/store.95601 The Reconstruction of the Proto-Semitic Genitive Ending and a Suggestion on its Origin <p>The Proto-Semitic genitive ending on triptotic nouns is commonly reconstructed as *<em>-im</em> (unbound state)/*<em>-i</em> (bound state). In Akkadian, however, this case ending is long <em>-ī-</em> before pronominal suffixes. Since the length of this vowel is unexplained, I argue that it is original and that the Akkadian bound state ending -<em>i</em> should also be reconstructed as long *<em>-ī</em>, explaining its retention in word-final position. This form seems more original than Proto-West-Semitic *<em>-i</em>. Hence, the Proto-Semitic bound state genitive ending should also be reconstructed as *<em>-ī</em>. Through internal reconstruction supported by the parallel of kinship terms like *<em>ʔab-um</em> ‘father’, I arrive at a pre-Proto-Semitic reconstruction of the genitive ending as *<em>-ī-m</em> (unbound), *<em>-ī</em> (bound). This paper then explores a hypothetical scenario where the genitive ending *<em>-ī</em> is derived from the adjectivizing ‘nisbe’ suffix through reanalysis of adjectival constructions like *<em>bayt-u śarr-ī</em> ‘the/a royal house’ as construct chains with meanings like ‘the/a king’s house’; with the addition of mimation and the resultant vowel shortening, this yielded the Proto-Semitic construction with a genitive, *<em>bayt-u śarr-im</em>. The genitive case failed to develop with diptotic nouns because they did not take mimation and in the dual and plural because the nisbe adjective was derived from the uninflected (singular) noun stem; hence, these categories all retain the more original contrast between the nominative and and an undifferentiated oblique case.</p> Benjamin Suchard Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Orientalia Electronica 2021-09-12 2021-09-12 9 1 66 82 10.23993/store.98387 From symposion to goṣṭhī: The Adaptation of a Greek Social Custom in Ancient India <p>The <em>symposion</em>, a male social gathering that began in ancient Greece, was a social institution by and for men, hence a type of men’s society as we might understand it in modern parlance. Its manifestation on the Indian subcontinent has to date not been fully explored. In its original form, the <em>symposion </em>consisted of three main elements: alcohol, sex, and intellectual pursuits in the form of literature and philosophy, commonly understood by the popular phrase “wine, women, and song”. These sympotic elements find their equivalents in a wide range of Sanskrit litera­ture, which include medicine (Āyurveda), eroticism (Kāmaśāstra), polity (Arthaśāstra), epics, and rhetoric (Alaṃkāraśāstra), as expressed in the Carakasaṃhitā, the Kāmasūtra, the Arthaśāstra, the Mahābhārata and Rāmāyaṇa, and the Kāvyamīmāṃsā. The literary evidence indicates that the three sympotic elements came to full blossom in urban Indian men’s social gatherings or <em>goṣṭhī</em>s dating to a few centuries before the Common Era. The paper combines this literary evidence with archaeological sources to show how a foreign social custom contributed to an indigenous institution of men’s society in ancient India by a process of adaptation. It would appear that as the institution moved into different parts of the Indian subcontinent, it increasingly came under Brahmanic influence, which led to an important ideological change that stressed literary and intel­lectual pursuits over alcohol and sex. Under royal patronage, the <em>goṣṭhī </em>finally became a means for the development of Sanskrit and Indian literature and drama.</p> Kenneth Zysk Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Orientalia Electronica 2021-09-12 2021-09-12 9 1 83 111 10.23993/store.102235 Folk Knowledge in Southern Siberia in the 1770s: Johan Peter Falck’s Ethnobiological Observations <p>The southern Siberian Turkic groups were mostly unknown to outsiders when the Swedish scientist Johan Peter Falck (1732–1774) visited their settlements in the early 1770s. Falck led one of the expeditions dispatched between 1768 and 1774 by the Russian Academy of Sciences to different parts of the Russian Empire. As a botanist, zoologist, ethnographer and linguist, during his jour­neys he recorded information not only about the environment but also about the peoples he met and their political and social organisation, as well as ethnographic data. Falck’s rich and detailed travelogue was published posthumously and soon forgotten, while the rich data remained unat­tended for almost two centuries. In recent years, mainly biologists have rediscovered the materials, yet ethnobiological data is also plentiful. Knowledge about the environment is crucial for survival, and the complex relationship between humans and their environment is often reflected in names given to living organisms and places or in perceptions of the surroundings. This article focuses on Siberian Turkic folk knowledge among the Chulym Tatars, Kacha, Soyan, and Teleut, based on the observations by Johan Peter Falck in the 1770s. Ethnobiological and linguistic materials are used in an effort to at least partly reconstruct the cognitive world in which these peoples lived and created their concepts of the environment. The article is a preliminary contribution to the study of historical ethnoecology and ethnobiology.</p> Sabira Ståhlberg Ingvar Svanberg Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Orientalia Electronica 2021-09-15 2021-09-15 9 1 112 131 10.23993/store.95535 Inter-lingual Homophony: Neige as a Demonstrative/Filler in Mandarin Chinese <p>The demonstrative/filler <em>neige</em> in Mandarin Chinese is potentially contentious outside that language,<br />as it bears resemblance in terms of pronunciation with a racial slur in English. Nonetheless, <em>neige</em><br />does not possess any racist connotation in Mandarin Chinese, and its analysis needs to take into<br />consideration historical and contextual information. The form <em>neige</em> is a colloquialism of its formal<br />equivalent <em>nage</em>, which has functioned as a demonstrative determiner/pronoun or a discourse<br />marker in verbal communication since ancient periods. The derivation of <em>nei</em> from <em>na</em> is realised<br />via suppression of the demonstrative with the numeral <em>yi</em> ‘one’, and this phenomenon occurred<br />even before Mandarin was invented as a national lingua franca. Differently from languages such<br />as English in which the number of homophones is limited, Chinese contains an enormous amount<br />of syllables with myriads of homophones, owing to the fact that Chinese is a tone language that<br />depends on tone implications to differentiate meanings and syllables/words are hence predominantly<br />mono- or bi-morphemic. As a consequence, homophones pertaining to Chinese abound<br />both language-internally and cross-linguistically. Among the repercussions of homophony are the<br />literary inquisitions during the Qing era that sabotaged freedom of creation. Therefore, the interpretation<br />and comprehension of <em>neige</em> need to be objective and impartial.</p> Aiqing Wang Copyright (c) 2021 Studia Orientalia Electronica 2021-09-27 2021-09-27 9 1 138 153 10.23993/store.102506