Studia Orientalia Electronica <p><em>Studia Orientalia</em> is an internationally recognized publication series of Asian and African studies. It is published by the Finnish Oriental Society. In addition to monographs and thematic collections of articles, some volumes have been regularly dedicated to high-quality articles on all fields of Asian and African studies. In fact, the first volume of <em>Studia Orientalia</em> in 1925 was such an article volume.<br>From the beginning of 2013, these article volumes have&nbsp;appeared in this new publication series, <em>Studia Orientalia Electronica</em>. StOrE is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal with continuous submission. With this new journal we hope to reach a wider&nbsp; audience and also speed up our publication process.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> (Albion M. Butters) (Antti-Jussi Nygård) Fri, 08 Jun 2018 08:39:00 +0300 OJS 60 Masks in the Iraqi Hell <p>ʿAbd al-Sattār Nāṣir (1947–2013) belonged to the group of Iraqi writers and intellectuals called <em>Jīl al-Sittināt</em> "the Sixties Generation", which dominated the cultural scene at the time.</p> <p>This article examines Nāṣir as a driven writer, who initially wrote out of a morally induced reaction to expose the suffering and brutalization of all Iraqi peoples and ethnicities by a controlling totalitarian regime, and as a once-incarcerated author of brave novels he hoped would someday catalyze a popular overthrow of the lawless, abusive leaders, thereby ending the fears and violence possessing Iraq’s body politic. Two themes -- the destruction wreaked by those with extraordinary power <em>and</em> their use of lies and deception to control the people –- are central to the three novels chosen as representative of Nāṣir’s oeuvre: <em>Abū al-Rīsh</em> (2002), <em>Niṣf al-Aḥzān</em>&nbsp;'Half Sorrows' (2000) and <em>Qushūr al-Badhinjān</em>&nbsp;'Eggplant Peels' (2007).</p> <p>In these three novels, Nāṣir exposes the unimaginable terror, violence and cruelty of Saddām Ḥusayn and his henchmen, as well as their propaganda, which consisted of lies and deception. Saddām is depicted as a ruler who presents himself as an inspiring revolutionary, but in fact is a tyrant who deceives the citizens, subjecting them to brutal control and leading them into deadly wars.&nbsp;</p> <p>Following George Orwell’s <em>1984</em>, Nāṣir’s literary corpus attempts to rip the masks from the faces of the dictator and his lackeys, who oppress the people, deny them any freedom of thought and keep them under constant surveillance.</p> Geula Elimelekh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Quotative in Bashkir <p>Evidentiality is a widely researched category in contemporary linguistics, both from the viewpoint of grammatical expression and also that of semantics/pragmatics. Amongst markers expressing information source is the illocutionary evidential quotative, which codes a speech report with an explicit reference to the quoted source. This article investigates the quotative particle <em>tip</em> in Bashkir, a Kipchak-Bulgar Turkic language spoken in the Russian Federation. In its default quotative meaning, <em>tip</em> signals direct speech and functions as a syntactic complementiser. This function was found to have extended from spoken utterances to coding thoughts and experiences in the context of semi-direct speech. A separate function of <em>tip</em> is its use as an adverbialiser signalling a logical relation and conveying the meaning of intention/purpose.</p> <p>Different categories were found to interact in the functions of <em>tip</em>. In the context of semi-direct speech, the meaning <em>tip</em> conveys is linked with the semantic dimension of subjectivity, which pertains to the cognitive processing and expressing of information by the speaker/experiencer. The interplay of the marker <em>tip</em> was investigated in conjunction with ten complement-taking verbs, whose degree and strength of subjectivity were found to range from neutral to strong. When combined with <em>küreü</em> ‘see’, <em>tip</em> introduces visual ambiguity and epistemic uncertainty, for example, in dream scenes. With the verbs <em>beleü</em> ‘know’ and <em>išeteü</em> ‘hear’, <em>tip</em> conveys a multisubjective meaning: in addition to signalling what the experiential subject has heard or found out, the marker also codes the involvement of some other subject, the original source, thus giving voice to multiple speakers and merging them.</p> Teija Greed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 16 Jul 2018 11:21:50 +0300 The Elephant's Footprint <p>A seminal article by Margaret Baron, published in 1969, explored the history of set diagrams (Venn diagrams). However, Baron did not look beyond the evidence of European sources. This article presents evidence of a literary simile from ancient India that exemplifies the idea of a larger circle including within it many smaller circles, each circle standing for an ethical concept. The simile – an elephant's footprint enclosing the footprints of smaller animals – first appears in the Buddhist Canon, and it was used occasionally in South Asian literature through the following millennia until the eighteenth century. I argue that the Elephant's Foot simile can be added to Baron’s catalogue of historical cases where ancient authors were using language that implied a simple concept of logical sets.</p> Dominik Wujastyk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 16 Oct 2018 20:50:42 +0300 Humorism and Characterization in Topan’s Mfalme Juha <p class="western" lang="en-GB">This paper discusses the character of King Juha, the protagonist of the comedy <em>Mfalme Juha</em> by Farouk Topan, using an approach that considers the humoristic dimension of this character. The definition of humorism employed here is that given by Pirandello: the result of an aesthetic process in which the comic effect deriving from an object of laughter is tempered and contrasted by a “sentiment of the contrary” that observes and builds empathy with the inner contradictions of the object itself. After a short outline of <em>Mfalme Juha</em>’s critical history which shows that the humoristic dimension of King Juha has never been considered in critiques, this paper focuses on an analysis of this character, in which the core feature of egocentricity is identified. Juha’s egocentricity and its humoristic nature are analysed in the character’s relationship with his subjects as their king and in his idea of art and culture; in both cases it is shown that what is important is not the wickedness or egoism of Juha, but his lack of comprehension of the world. Juha is incapable of understanding his environment and other people, since he can not doubt his own superiority: this puts him in several comic situations, but on the other hand makes him a victim of his smart subjects, so that he arouses a feeling of sympathy in which Pirandello’s sentiment of the contrary can be traced.</p> Emiliano Minerba ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 17 Dec 2018 17:37:49 +0200 Changing Perceptions of Türk Identity Among the Medieval Nomads of Central Eurasia <p>The Türk Khaganate and the ethnonym Türk have been used in modern nation-building processes among the Turkic-speaking peoples of Eurasia since the end of the nineteenth&nbsp;century. The historical importance of the name is exemplified by the country of Turkey today, the plan for a Turkic Republic in Central Asia in the 1920s, and the latest Kazak (Tatar) historiography after the fall of the Soviet Union. The study focuses on the meanings of Türk in the period of the Türk Khaganate (6th–8th&nbsp;centuries). Its first denotation is for an ethnic community or nationality, that is, a nomadic tribal confederation defined by use of the model of <em>gens</em>, including a common origin, language, and traditions with centuries of a stable political framework and the majority of society sharing common law. The second aspect of the usage of the term Türk, being political, referred to all peoples subject to the power of the Türk Khagan. After the fall of the Türk Khaganate, both meanings faded away due to the lack of political stability in the history of the Eurasian steppe, revealing an absence of ethnic continuity from the Middle Ages. However, fragments of Türk identity may have survived in the forms of language community, the Islamic legend of descent from an eponymos hero, and a nomadic way of life opposed to the territorial principles of settled civilisations. </p> István Zimonyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 22 Dec 2018 12:36:54 +0200 Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Aspects of Variation in the Eastern Cape: Complexities of Xhosa Language Use <p>This paper presents the results of a micro-variation project in which linguistic diversity of the Eastern Cape of South Africa is examined. It shows that regional variation in the Xhosa dialect cluster is minimal and that many older forms and sounds that have previously been reported on are no longer in use. With a specific focus on morpho-syntactic variation, the paper gives examples from a corpus of recorded, transcribed and glossed speech collected across the Eastern Cape. It is argued that spontaneous speech is crucial in analysing morpho-syntactic variation when it is on a fine, intralinguistic level. The paper gives a detailed overview of previous publications on the dialects of the area and relates this to current findings based on the recordings. It is shown that the presumed decline in dialectal differences is not paired with a decrease in linguistic identity which is connected to separate clans and kingdoms. The dwindling use of regional variables is explained by a longstanding situation of personal mobility, standardization and schooling. This paper contributes to our understanding of the linguistic complexities of the Nguni subgroup of Bantu languages. It concludes that any experienced differences between standard Xhosa and the language spoken at home is not due to regional variation, and that their causes should be sought elsewhere.</p> Eva-Marie Bloom Ström ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Jan 2019 11:28:54 +0200 Review of Joonas Maristo & Andrei Sergejeff: Aikamme monta islamia Risto Marjomaa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Review of Katriina Ranne: The Image of Water in the Poetry of Euphrase Kezilahabi Roberto Gaudioso ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Jun 2018 14:52:15 +0300