https://journal.fi/susa/issue/feed Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja 2018-04-26T14:45:11+03:00 Susanna Virtanen sihteeri@sgr.fi Open Journal Systems <p><em>Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja</em> (<em>Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne</em>) on tätä nykyä noin kahden vuoden välein ilmestyvä kansainvälinen vertaisarviointia käyttävä aikakauslehti, jonka ensimmäinen numero ilmestyi vuonna 1886. Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran vuonna 2008 käyttöön otettu Aikakauskirjan verkkojulkaisu sisältää tällä hetkellä tuoreimpien numeroiden 91–95 koko sisällön – artikkelit, tieteelliset katsaukset sekä Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran viimeisimmät vuosikertomukset ja tilinpäätökset – maksuttomina pdf-tiedostoina.</p> <p><a href="http://www.sgr.fi/susa/susa.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Tutustu aiempien&nbsp;numeroiden sisältöihin täällä.</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.sgr.fi/susa/susa_fi.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Uusimmmat numerot löydät pdf-muodossa täältä.</a></p> <p>Päätoimittaja: Rigina Ajanki &lt;rigina.ajanki@helsinki.fi&gt;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70219 Further Russian, Chuvash, and Tatar loan etymologies for Mari 2018-04-24T14:14:41+03:00 Christopher Culver christopher.culver@alumni.helsinki.fi <p>The article offers several new or revised Tatar, Chuvash, or Russian loan etymologies for Mari words: 1) MariE <em>č́ükə̑ndə̑r</em> etc. ‘beetroot’ &lt; Tat. <em>čögender</em> id.; 2) MariE <em>jŭɣo</em> ‘heir’ &lt; Cv. <em>yăx(ă)</em> ‘family, tribe’; 3) MariE <em>juŋgo</em> etc. ‘finger wound’ &lt; Tat. <em>yungï</em> ‘splinter’; 4) MariE <em>kalaŋga</em> ‘rutabaga, Brassica napobrassica’ &lt; Ru. dial. <em>голанка</em> id.; 5) MariE <em>kolko</em> ‘fishing float’ &lt; Tat. *<em>kalkï</em> id.; 6) MariE <em>meke</em> ‘sack’ &lt; Ru. <em>мех</em> id.; 7) MariE <em>napala</em>, <em>lapla</em> etc. ‘fishing float’ &lt; Ru. dial. <em>наплав</em> id.; 8) MariE <em>oroδo</em> etc. ‘idiot’ &lt; Ru. dial. <em>урод</em> id.; 9) MariE <em>popə̑lδatem</em> ‘yammer’ &lt; Ru. <em>поболтать</em> id.; 10) MariE Nw <em>sor</em> ‘big; adult; a lot; for a long time’ &lt; Tat. <em>zur</em> id.; 11) MariE <em>šolaš‑</em> etc. ‘throatlatch on bridle of horse’ &lt; Ru. dial. <em>салазки </em>‘lower jaw’; 12) MariE <em>ökə̑m</em> etc. ‘by force, compulsory’ &lt; Tat. <em>xökem</em> ‘verdict, authority’; 13) MariE <em>titak</em> etc. ‘blame, guilt, misdeed’ &lt; Tat. <em>titak</em> id.; 14) MariE <em>tutə̑nem</em> ‘to stutter’ &lt; Tat. *<em>totïn</em> id.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70249 Visual multilingualism in the Arctic minority context of indigenous urban communities (Enontekiö, Dudinka and Khanty-Mansiysk) 2018-04-26T13:53:03+03:00 Zsuzsa Duray duray.zsuzsa@nytud.mta.hu Csilla Horváth horvath.csilla@nytud.mta.hu Zsuzsa Várnai varnai@nytud.hu <p>The article summarizes some of the results of research on the current linguistic and cultural identity of the Sámi community in Enontekiö, Finland, of Nenets, Dolgan, Nganasan, Evenki and Enets communities in Dudinka, and of the Mansi community in Khanty-Mansiysk in the Russian Federation. The research focuses on analysing the linguistic landscapes of Enontekiö, Dudinka and Khanty-Mansiysk. The visual materials on linguistic landscape in general, and schoolscape in particular analysed in the paper were collected by the authors during their fieldworks: 2015 in Hetta, Enontekiö, 2008 and 2016 in Dudinka, and 2015 in Khanty-Mansiysk. We conclude that there is a direct correspondence between the representation of the minority languages in the broad linguistic landscape of the area and the official language policy of the state in question, the differences observed at the territories under investigation originate from the official<br>language policy in the given state. The only domain of linguistic landscape in all the territories where the minority language is represented on its own or in combination with the majority language is that of educational and cultural institutions. The lack of monolingual minority signs in public spaces can also be the result of the fact that the use of the minority languages in writing is a recent development in all of these communities.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70221 Об одной функции адвербиаля -я в удмуртском языке (как пример языковой стандартизации) 2018-04-24T14:15:36+03:00 Svetlana Edygarova svetlana.jedygarova@helsinki.fi <p>This paper deals with the contemporary Udmurt language which demonstrates extensive influence from Russian. It is misleading, however, to think that a strong influenceof a prestige language in a minority language would indicate a poorer version of the language in question. Despite Udmurt being a living, rich language, the ways in which people use it depends on their sociolinguistic background. Here, empirical data gathered by means of a translation test is used to demonstrate the way in which the informants use the new adnominal function of the Udmurt adverbial case. It is concluded that this use depends on the linguistic background of the individual speaker. In particular, it reflects speakers’ knowledge of different language varieties, such as the standard language, the vernacular and various dialects. It also reflects how speakers have acquired and continue to use these varieties.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70222 New evidence on Para-Mongolic numerals 2018-04-24T14:16:28+03:00 Andreas Hölzl hoelzlandreas@web.de <p>Para-Mongolic is a technical term that designates languages that were related to the Mongolic languages, but which split off from this lineage before Proto-Mongolic times. One source of knowledge for Para-Mongolic comes from loanwords in surrounding languages, of which borrowed numerals in the Tungusic language Jurchen are a well-known example. The paper presents new evidence found in Tungusic languages that were previously almost unknown in the West and briefly sketches the place of those languages within the Tungusic family.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70251 Reference tracking mechanisms and automatic annotation based on Ob-Ugric information structure 2018-04-26T14:24:36+03:00 Gwen Eva Janda gwen.janda@gmail.com Axel Wisiorek axel.wisiorek@itg.uni-muenchen.de Stefanie Eckmann stefanie-eckmann@gmx.de <p>The following paper is concerned with information structure in the Ob-Ugric languages and its manifestation in reference tracking and its mechanisms. We will show how both knowledge on information structure and on reference tracking mechanisms can be used to develop a system for a (semi-)automatic annotation of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic functions. We assume that the principles of information structure, i.e., the balancing of the content of an utterance, are indicated by the use of anaphoric devices to mark participants in an on-going discourse. This process in which participants are encoded by the speaker and decoded by the hearer is called reference tracking. Our model distinguishes four important factors that play a role in reference tracking: inherent (linguistic) features of a referent, information structure, referential devices and referential strategies. The interaction between these factors we call reference tracking mechanisms. Here, the passive voice and the dative shift are used to exemplify this complex interaction system. Drawing conclusions from this, rules are developed to annotate both syntactic, semantic and pragmatic roles of discourse participants (semi-)automatically.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70223 Lähtökielen sanansisäisten soinnittomien klusiilien edustus kantasuomen balttilaislainoissa 2018-04-24T14:17:09+03:00 Santeri Junttila santeri.junttila@helsinki.fi <p>In this article I intend to outline the rules determining when the word-internal Baltic tenuis consonants <em>k</em>, <em>t</em> and <em>p</em> appear as the single stops <em>k</em>, <em>t</em>, <em>p</em> and when they appear as the geminates <em>kk</em>, <em>tt</em>, <em>pp</em> in old Baltic loanwords in proto-Finnic. I will critically assess the Baltic loan etymologies which contain tenuis consonants, at which point the Baltic origins of the Finnish words <em>kukkura</em>, <em>lapa</em>, <em>mytyri</em> and <em>patistaa</em> will be rejected and the suggested loan etymologies of the Finnish words <em>hako</em>, <em>latu</em>, <em>mättää</em> and <em>äes</em> as well as Est. <em>matta</em> and <em>uba</em> will be shown to be uncertain. Words of certain Baltic origin include Fin. <em>ativo</em>, <em>kypärä</em>, <em>kavuta</em>, <em>ketara</em>, <em>lapio</em>, <em>nepaa</em>, <em>rainta</em>, <em>ratas</em>, <em>toe</em>, <em>vakka</em> and <em>ätelä</em>, and those of probable Baltic origin include Fin. <em>huttu</em>, <em>kääppä</em>, <em>makka(ra)</em>, <em>mäkärä</em>, <em>oas</em>, as well as Est. <em>hakata</em> and SEst. <em>nakadaq</em>. In addition to these, I will present completely new Baltic loan etymologies for the Finnish words <em>kukka-</em> ~ <em>kukku-</em> and <em>lappa</em>. In all certain and probable loanwords, Baltic tenuis consonants are found as geminates in disyllabic nominal stems and as single stops in trisyllabic nominal stems. This substitution rule may be the result of the overall impression that the target-language speakers get of the duration of the source-language words. When a Baltic verb was borrowed, a proto-Finnic verbal affix was added to the borrowed stem, so that further ways of substituting the duration of the word form were not needed.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70224 Ščekoldinin vuoden 1894 koltansaamenkielisen Matteuksen evankeliumin kielestä 2018-04-24T14:17:45+03:00 Markus Juutinen markus.juutinen@oulu.fi <p>The Skolt Saami Gospel of Matthew was published in 1894 and translated by priest K. P. Ščekoldin who was a native speaker of Russian. Ščekoldin has been regarded as an expert of Skolt Saami. This article shows, however, that his translation suffers from various errors. Some of the mistakes, such as those found in the marking of consonant gradation, diphthongs, verbal agreement and negation, must be the result of his insufficient language skills. Other mistakes can be attributed to certain linguistic structures found in the source language, Russian. These include mistakes in verbal agreement, in the case marking of nominal arguments and complements and in the expression of possession and of questions. The influence of the source language can, of course, itself be a result of insufficient language skills. Despite the weaknesses in Ščekoldin’s translation, it still is an important document of Skolt Saami: it was only in 1970s when the next written works of Skolt Saami were published.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70257 Matthias Alexander Castrén’s notes on Nenets folklore 2018-04-26T14:43:44+03:00 Karina Lukin karina.lukin@helsinki.fi <p>This article contextualizes Nenets folklore notes taken by M. A. Castrén from three different angles. First, it discusses the historical research background of Castrén’s work, situating his field expeditions especially in the context of ethnography which was a new and developing discipline during Castrén’s research. Second, the article examines the Nenets generic system as a flexible regime, and discusses how Castrén has categorized the texts he collected. Third, the article discusses the processes of textualization and the performance of Nenets epic poetry and shows that not only that Castrén had systems of textualization of the Nenets oral poetry in use, but also Nenets did. These are related to the different levels of dialogicality in the performance of Nenets epic poetry, of which only some can be interpreted in the texts written down by Castrén.</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70228 Päivitettyjä permiläisiä etymologioita ja rinnastuksia 2018-04-24T14:19:37+03:00 Niklas Metsäranta niklas.metsaranta@helsinki.fi <p>In this article, new revised etymologies are provided for a selected group of words in the Permic languages. An attempt is made to prove that old, previously proposed cognate sets can be revised and reorganized and that new cognates and loan etymologies can still be found simply by adhering to regularity. The article also explores both synchronic and diachronic derivation as an etymological tool. The Permic words discussed in the article are: 1) Komi <em>ki̮r-</em> ’to dig (up); to wash away, to furrow’, Udmurt <em>ki̮ri̮-</em> ’to unpick, to take apart; to burst, to puncture, to crack (dam)’, 2) Komi <em>kurćći̮-</em>, Udmurt <em>kurtći̮-</em> ’to bite’, 3) Komi <em>pe̮ž-</em> ’to steam, to bake’, Udmurt <em>pi̮ži̮-</em> ’to bake’, 4) Komi-Permyak <em>śe̮vt</em>, <em>śe̮vte̮t</em> ’tether, fetter, shackles’, Udmurt <em>śe̮ltet</em>, <em>śe̮li̮t</em> ’fetter’, 5) Komi <em>vor(j)</em> ’manger, trough’, Udmurt <em>e̮r</em> ’(river) bed’.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70229 Finnish vatsa ~ Sanskrit vatsá and the formation of Indo-Iranian and Uralic languages 2018-04-24T14:20:18+03:00 Asko Parpola apparpola@gmail.com <p>Finnish <em>vatsa</em> ‘stomach’ &lt; PFU *<em>vaćća</em> &lt; Proto-Indo-Aryan *<em>vatsá-</em> ‘calf’ &lt; PIE *<em>vet-(e)s-ó-</em> ‘yearling’ contrasts with Finnish <em>vasa-</em> ‘calf’ &lt; Proto-Iranian *<em>vasa-</em> ‘calf’. Indo-Aryan <em>-ts-</em> versus Iranian <em>-s-</em> reflects the divergent development of PIE *<em>-tst-</em> in the Iranian branch (&gt; *<em>-st-</em>, with Greek and Balto-Slavic) and in the Indo-Aryan branch ( &gt; *<em>-tt-</em>, probably due to Uralic substratum). The split of Indo-Iranian can be traced in the archaeological record to the differentiation of the Yamnaya culture in the North Pontic and Volga steppes respectively during the third millennium BCE, due to the use of separate sources of metal: the Iranian branch was dependent on the North Caucasus, while the Indo-Aryan branch was oriented towards the Urals. It is argued that the Abashevo culture of the Mid-Volga-Kama-Belaya basins and the Sejma-Turbino trade network (2200–1900 BCE) were bilingual in Proto-Indo-Aryan and PFU, and introduced the PFU as the basis of West Uralic (Volga-Finnic) into the Netted Ware Culture of the Upper Volga-Oka (1900–200 BCE).</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70231 Onomasticon of Levänluhta and Käldamäki region 2018-04-24T14:20:50+03:00 Pauli Rahkonen pauli.rahkonen@gmail.com <p>The water burials in the Levänluhta (the Isokyrö parish) and Käldamäki (the former Vöyri parish) sites in Ostrobothnia have been a great mystery for the scholars because of their unique character. The dating of the burials is 5th–8th centuries AD. Similar burials are not known elsewhere in Finland or in its neighbouring areas. The results of an onomastic study show that the earliest Finnish maritime toponyms appeared in the 9th century and the earliest Swedish toponyms in the late 13th century. This means that the burials most probably were not conducted by Finnish or Swedish speaking populations. In Vöyri, no obvious Saami toponyms are found, but in Isokyrö, a few Saami names can be recognized. Baltic toponyms are completely unknown. The words behind the names of the largest local rivers could possibly be derived from Proto-Finno-Permian, but alternatively it is possible that they represent obscure names of Paleo-European origin. Thus, the most probable linguistic groups behind the water burials might be speakers of the West Uralic x-language or Paleo-European.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70238 Mordvalaisten häämenojen lauluista ja niiden kielellisistä erityispiirteistä 2018-04-24T14:27:56+03:00 Merja Salo merja.salo@helsinki.fi Tatjana Devjatkina tatyana_devyatki@mail.ru <p>Häät ovat mordvalaisen kansanperinteen keskeinen osa, ja häälaulut muodostavat sen monikerroksisen ytimen. Tässä artikkelissa keskitytään mokšalaisiin häälauluihin, joiden tyypit ovat: 1) vanhinta kerrostumaa edustavat rukouslaulut, joissa heijastuvat mordvalaisten suojelijajumalausko ja vainajain palvonta, 2) hyvin suositut, osin improvisoidut pilkkalaulut, joiden tausta on maaginen ja joilla on toisinaan jopa aivan käänteinen merkitys, 3) monifunktioiset ylistävät paranzama-laulut, 4) häiden tanssilaulut, joilla pyrittiin rentouttamaan häävieraita, 5) kuoron esittämät pitkät laulut ja 6) uusinta kerrostumaa edustavat nopeat laulut eli tšastuškat. Ersäläisten häiden ominainen piirre on hääitkujen runsas määrä, kun taas mokšalaiset samoin kuin monet naapurikansat ovat mieltyneet pilkkalaulujen esittämiseen. Tässä artikkelissa esitellään ersäläisten ja erityisesti mokšalaisten häälauluja, niiden sanastoa ja lauluissa käytettyjä kielellisiä keinoja runsain esimerkein. Usein keinot menevät lomittain ja jokin piirre voi kuulua samanaikaisesti eri otsikoiden alle. Lisäksi annetaan lisätietoa mordvalaisen kansanrunouden kerääjistä, kansanrunokokoelmista, mordvalaisten häiden vaiheista sekä tehdään samalla rinnastuksia suomalais-ugrilaisiin ja muihin naapurikansoihin. Suomalais-ugrilaisilla ei liene säilynyt paljonkaan alkuperäisiä häälauluja: häätavat ja -terminologia ovat hyvin alttiita kulttuurien väliselle vaikutukselle.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70232 On the tracks of the Proto-Uralic suffix *-ksi 2018-04-24T14:21:18+03:00 Jussi Ylikoski jussi.ylikoski@oulu.fi <p>This paper presents a comprehensive reappraisal of the origins of the Mari lative case marker <em>-(e)š</em>. According to the received view, the suffix <em>-(e)š</em> originates in a Proto-Finno-Volgaic *<em>s</em>-lative, ultimate origin of which has not been explained. As the traditional theory of the origins of the so-called s-cases in Saami, Finnic, Mordvin and Mari suffers from various methodological shortcomings, alternative proposals have been presented, but the Mari lative continues to lack a plausible explanation. At the same time, the Finnic and Mordvin translatives in *<em>-ksi</em> are nowadays related to the Northern Samoyed predestinative in *<em>-tə̑</em>. This paper aims to present a functionally and phonologically sound theory of the origin of the Mari lative case marker <em>-(e)š</em> by relating the suffix to translatives and derivations in *<em>-ksi</em>, acknowledging that the hypothesis is not new, but actually predates the prevailing theory of the 20th century. At the same time, the paper presents the first familywide overview of the possible descendants *<em>-ksi</em>, a suffix that may have functioned as a case marker already in Proto-Uralic.</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70236 Karjalan kielestä ja sen tutkimuksesta 2000-luvulla 2018-04-24T14:21:56+03:00 Vesa Koivisto vesa.koivisto@uef.fi <p><em>Kirjoitus perustuu Suomalais-Ugrilaisessa Seurassa 17.2.2017 pidettyyn esitelmään.</em><br>Karjalan kieli on meille suomalaisille naapurikieli ja lisäksi myös läheinen sukukieli, mutta monelle kylläkin myös varsin tuntematon kieli. Käsittelen tässä kirjoituksessa karjalan kieltä ja sen asemaa ja tutkimusta 2000-luvun yhteiskunnassa, etenkin Suomessa. …</p> 2018-04-25T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70252 Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran vuosikertomus ja tilinpäätös vuodelta 2015 2018-04-26T14:31:57+03:00 Ulriikka Puura sihteeri@sgr.fi <p>Kokoukset<br>Päättyvä vuosi on Seuran 132. toimivuosi. …</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journal.fi/susa/article/view/70253 Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran vuosikertomus ja tilinpäätös vuodelta 2016 2018-04-26T14:34:58+03:00 Ulriikka Puura sihteeri@sgr.fi <p>Kokoukset<br>Päättyvä vuosi on Seuran 133. toimivuosi. …</p> 2018-04-26T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##