Viipurin Suomalaisen Kirjallisuusseuran toimitteita 2022-01-20T08:01:29+02:00 Iisa Aaltonen Open Journal Systems <p>Viipurin Suomalaisen Kirjallisuusseuran toimitteita -sarja on vertaisarvioitu julkaisusarja, jonka alana on Viipurin kaupunki- ja kulttuurihistoria. Toimitteissa julkaistaan tieteellisiä artikkeleita erityisesti historian, kirjallisuuden ja taiteiden tutkimuksen aloilta. Vuonna 1975 perustetun sarjan osat 18–23 muodostavat kokonaisuuden Viipuri, kulttuurin kaupunki.</p> <p>Vuonna 2015 VSKS:n Toimitteita -sarja muutettiin vertaisarvioiduksi julkaisukanavaksi, johon valitut tieteelliset artikkelit käyvät läpi anonyymin vertaisarvioinnin. Sarja on TSV:n julkaisufoorumin (jufo) tasolla 1 ja sille on myönnetty&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">TSV:n vertaisarviointitunnus</a>.</p> ”Viipuri, kulttuurin kaupunki” -kokonaisuus päättyy 2022-01-19T08:07:43+02:00 Anu Koskivirta H. K. Riikonen <p>-</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Viipurilaisuus ja viipurilaiset diasporassa 2022-01-19T08:11:51+02:00 Satu Grünthal Kristiina Korjonen-Kuusipuro <p>-</p> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Karjala kulttuurisena traumana Suomen teatterissa 2022-01-19T08:21:45+02:00 Pentti Paavolainen <div class="page" title="Page 345"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Karelia as a cultural trauma in Finnish theatre</p> <p>This article asks how Finnish-language theatre and plays have depicted ceded Karelia and reflected the feelings of the Karelian diaspora. The theatrical art- form is understood as a dialogue between narratives intended for the commu- nity and the reception they receive from them. The article examines the ways in which theatre participated in dealing with the cultural trauma of the diaspora. The changing political climate in Finland and Russia, as well as the ambivalent relationships of the post-war Karelian generations with the traumatic narrative of the older generation, allows three periods to be distinguished: 1. The stage of harmony, longing and nostalgic drama (1940–1965), when the focus was mainly on lost era; 2. The phase of conflicting Karelian orientations (1965–1990), when the influence of the Soviet Union on public debate and interpretations of history was at its strongest; and 3. The stage of consolidation of the Karelian narrative (1990–2020), when epic theatre covering all the war years was performed in Fin- land dealing with forced departure and adaptation, now from the perspective of the evacuees’ own experience and Finnish interpretation of history.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ”Maailma jota ei enää ole – vaikka onkin” 2022-01-19T16:52:45+02:00 Jani Karhu <div class="page" title="Page 344"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>“A world which doesn’t exist – even though it does.”<br>The urban space and past of Vyborg in Finnish and Russian interpretations</p> <p>The article analyses the interpretations of the past given to the town space of Vyborg. Utilising survey and interview material collected from Finnish and Russian target groups, it examines which places in the city become the main objects of description and what meanings are attached to these. The article looks at the urban space in Vyborg via an assessment of public-level meanings on the one hand and private-level meanings on the other, and the space is strongly understood as a social product for which the users of the space actively create meanings. In both Finnish and Russian interpretations of the history of Vyborg’s urban space, the city appears as a kind of imaginary space, and, especially in the speech of Finns, is romanticised by the tradition of remem- brance. The Russians have built new memory environments in Vyborg to create national memory sites in the city space. For both Finns and Russians, history is an important part of Vyborg’s urban space, but its contents and starting points are related to different layers of recognition.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pala Viipuria uuteen kotiin 2022-01-19T16:56:05+02:00 Maarit Sireni <div class="page" title="Page 346"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>A piece of Vyborg in the new home</p> <p>The article analyses how ceded Vyborg has been made visible in the material culture of the homes of people who left and settled elsewhere in Finland. The study focuses on the pictures and objects representing the place of origin and their meanings for the narrators. The analysis utilises concepts from social and cultural geography, and research on homes and the material culture of homes as a way of remembering. The findings are also mirrored in previous studies on the sense of place of migrant Karelians. The material used is an ethnographic survey conducted by the National Board of Antiquities in 1982. The empirical part of the article describes what kind of objects writers with Vyborg backgrounds tell about and how Vyborg is reflected in their new homes. This is followed by a more detailed look at the memoirs of three women who left Vyborg. These shed light on both the meanings of origin and on the pro- cesses of homelessness, and the formation of a sense of home among displaced Karelians during the decades of reconstruction.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Viipurin pienoismallin merkitykset 2022-01-19T17:02:24+02:00 Reija Eeva <div class="page" title="Page 343"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Meanings of the Vyborg scale model</p> <p>The article examines the meanings of the Vyborg scale model, completed in 1985 for the South Karelia Museum. At the time, the scale model was built to preserve and commemorate the cultural history of Vyborg, Finland’s second largest city, but its meanings have changed over the years. The article is based on a customer survey in Finnish and Russian conducted in 2019 at the South Karelia Museum, which mapped the meanings of the scale model. Respondents to the Finnish-language survey emphasised the importance of the scale model as an image of Finnish Vyborg and respondents to the Russian-language survey saw it as a scale model telling the history of Vyborg. The article highlights the significance of the Vyborg scale model as a tourist destination, as a high-quality scale model and as a symbol of lost Karelia and Vyborg.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tiedonarkeologisia pohdintoja Viipurin vuoden 1918 haudatuista muistoista 2022-01-19T19:43:11+02:00 Outi Fingerroos <div class="page" title="Page 343"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Knowledge-archaeological reflections on the buried memories of Vyborg in 1918</p> <p>The subject of the article is the ‘memory war’ over the memory of the Civil War of 1918 in Vyborg, and the displaced Karelians’ experience in the time of diaspora. Until the wars of 1939–1945 the culture of remembrance of the Civil War was divided in Vyborg and in Finland and many truths of the war were maintained in the Red’s and White’s own groups. The article details how the dichotomous history culture of Civil War memories has slowly transformed into a diversified and critical analysis over the past one hundred years. The qualita- tive material used in the article consists of memory data written by displaced Karelians held in Finnish archives. The article is a knowledge-archaeological analysis of memories, memorial culture, and sedimentary layers from different times in history.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Karjalan evakot Suomen historian oppikirjoissa: kolme näkökulmaa 1940-luvulta 2010-luvulle 2022-01-19T19:47:46+02:00 Eemeli Hakoköngäs <div class="page" title="Page 344"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Karelian evacuees in Finnish history textbooks: three perspectives from the 1940s to the 2010s</p> <p>The article examines how Karelian evacuees have been described in Finnish history textbooks from the 1940s to the 2010s. From the data, three main ways in which the topic has been addressed were identified: the achievement, prob- lem, and suffering perspectives. In terms of achievement, the re-settlement of the evacuees is presented as a sign of the unity of the Finns and the tenacity of the Karelians. In presenting the evacuees as a problem, the authors of the textbooks, in turn, emphasise the effects of migration and settlement activities on the national economy. The third, and most recent, perspective is to highlight individuals’ experiences of evacuation and the human suffering associated with losing their home area. Based on the data, the role of evacuees as part of the overall story of Finnish history conveyed by the study materials is rela- tively small, offering little material for building historical identity. A broader treatment of the topic in the teaching of history would make it possible to, for example, practice the skills of historical empathy.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Suomalaisnuorten Viipuri-käsityksiä ryhmäkeskusteluissa 2022-01-20T07:47:13+02:00 Chloe Wells <div class="page" title="Page 347"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Young people in Finland’s perceptions of Vyborg in focus group discussions</p> <p>Vyborg can be understood as ‘lost’ Finnish place, to which certain meanings and memories are attached. This article fills a gap in knowledge by focusing on young people in Finland today, born over 50 years after Vyborg ceased to be a Finnish place, and exploring their perceptions of Vyborg. The results from mixed methods focus groups with 325 16-19 year olds across Finland, conducted by the author in 2017, show several main trends in how young people relate to the memory of Finnish Vyborg. Young people repeated and accepted a certain narrative about the city, acknowledged but rejected the emotional attachment to Vyborg sometimes expressed by other groups in Finland, and justified in various ways ideas about who Vyborg ‘belongs to.’ Overall, results highlighted a generation gap with participants separating themselves from the meanings and memories attached to Vyborg by older people. The concepts of nostalgia and postmemory are used to understand and contextualise these results.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nostokurjista kruunuihin 2022-01-20T07:55:10+02:00 Evgeny Manzhurin <div class="page" title="Page 345"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>From Cranes to Crowns</p> <p>After Vyborg’s incorporation into the Soviet Union, its status diminished from a regional capital to a district centre. To add insult to injury, the city also suf- fered a symbolic demotion when the use of its coat of arms was discontinued. Change came in the 1960s when the idea to (re-)create city symbols began to circulate in the Soviet press. New symbols were adopted, and informal heraldic imaginaries appeared on souvenirs and badges, millions of which were pro- duced, consumed and collected across the USSR. This article examines the heraldic revival in Vyborg: the attempts to create a Soviet symbol by the city authorities and informal uses of the heraldic form. Through appropriations of space and time, this heraldic revival created new visions of the city that under- mined the monolithic Stalinist symbolic order. Consumer items used heraldic fantasies to promote the perception of Vyborg as a non-Soviet place, as part of the imaginary West. In the 1980s and 1990s this vision became dominant in Vyborg’s official symbols.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Haarautunut evakkotie – viipurilaisten organisaatioiden uudet kotipaikat 2022-01-19T08:15:37+02:00 Anu Koskivirta <div class="page" title="Page 348"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The branched evacuation route – new headquarters for Vyborg organisations</p> <p>The text examines the relocation of ceded Vyborg’s administrative, social and cultural institutions in the rest of Finland. The heritage of the city was frag- mented over a large area because the remaining part of Karelia did not have a city large enough to accommodate the Vyborgian facilities. In this respect, the competition between the fairly strong regional centres slowed down the urban development of the whole of Eastern Finland.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Joensuuhun, Kotkaan, Lappeenrantaan, Turkuun vai takaisin Viipuriin? Viipurin Taloudellinen Korkeakouluseura sotien jälkeisessä Suomessa 2022-01-19T08:19:13+02:00 Mikko Kohvakka <div class="page" title="Page 348"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>To Joensuu, Kotka, Lappeenranta, Turku, or back to Vyborg? The Vyborg University of Economics Society in post-war Finland</p> <p>The focus of this text is the activities of the Vyborg University of Economics Society in post-war Finland. Central to its post-war operations was finding a new home in Eastern Finland. Lappeenranta was finally chosen as the new home of the ‘Mercury rod’, which symbolises trade, as a continuation of the Vyborg tradition. The promise of financial support from the Society also influ- enced the shaping of the Lappeenranta University of Technology.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Viipurilainen musiikkielämä Savonlinnassa 2022-01-19T08:25:12+02:00 Susanna Niiranen <div class="page" title="Page 349"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The Vyborgian music scene in Savonlinna</p> <p>This text examines musical relations between Savonlinna and Vyborg, as well as the hobby of music amongst the Karelian migrants in Savonlinna. The hobby of music united evacuees from Vyborg after the wars. This was influenced by pre-war contacts that facilitated their adaptation to Savonlinna. The Roma population with a Karelian background was also part of this musical tradition, but there is still little research on this topic.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arno Tuurna – uusmaalaisesta ylioppilaasta karjalaiseksi heimopäälliköksi 2022-01-19T19:38:09+02:00 Petri Karonen Anu Koskivirta <div class="page" title="Page 348"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Arno Tuurna – From a student in Uusimaa to chief of the Karelians</p> <p>Arno Tuurna (1894–1976, until 1935 Arno Thuneberg) was a key influencer of Karelian political and cultural life from the 1930s until the 1970s. The text focus- es on Tuurna’s activities after the Second World War, when he was involved in key positions in Parliament, the Helsinki municipal administration and numerous organisations to do with ceded Karelia. From these positions he tirelessly emphasised the importance of working for the cause of Kareliness in general, and the importance of cherishing the memory of Vyborg in particular.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jouko Teperin opettajantyö viipurilaisuuden ja karjalaisuuden vaalijana sotienjälkeisessä Suomessa 2022-01-20T07:43:19+02:00 Jari Salminen <div class="page" title="Page 349"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Jouko Teperi’s teaching work as a guardian of Vyborgianism and Karelianism in post-war Finland</p> <p>Jouko Teperi (1922–2008) did extensive work in the study and teaching of his- tory, and for these merits he was awarded the title of Professor in 1980. The text highlights several of Teperi’s studies related to the history of Karelia, the Karelian Association and its Vyborg branch, as well as his works on the history of private schools.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Facebook viipurilaisten muistin paikkana 2022-01-20T07:52:41+02:00 Pirja Hyyryläinen <div class="page" title="Page 347"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Facebook as a place of memory for Vyborgians</p> <p>The text looks at displaced Karelian groups – especially those related to Vyborg – on Facebook, which create a digital bridge between the past and the present. The groups are meta-archives as they store Vyborg-themed images and texts, share memories and host discussions related to Vyborg. There are participants from different generations. Facebook also enables virtual home region travel.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Viipuri-kirjallisuus diasporan aikana 2022-01-20T08:01:29+02:00 Satu Grünthal <div class="page" title="Page 347"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Vyborg in literature after the wars</p> <p>The text provides an overview of post-war Vyborg literature. Memoirs, espe- cially those which appeared in the 1970s – 1980s, have maintained the image of Vyborg as an idyllic city. In the 2000s Vyborg has been both a picturesque stage for suspense novels and a venue for dramatic war experiences. Vyborg literature can also be a communally shared place of memory that has made possible a return to a lost time and city.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ruotsinkieliset kirjailijat Karjalassa ja Viipurissa: aikalaishavaintoja ja nostalgiaa 2022-01-20T07:58:30+02:00 H. K. Riikonen <div class="page" title="Page 346"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Swedish-speaking writers in Karelia and Vyborg: contemporary observations and nostalgia</p> <p>The article examines Swedish and Swedish-speaking Finnish writers in Karelia and their descriptions of Karelia. The main focus is on the period between the world wars, but there are also some examples from both earlier and later peri- ods. Some of the writers were born in Karelia, while others visited more occa- sionally. The material under study includes fictional prose, poetry, memoirs, and historical studies. The examples illuminate ethnographic and folk-type descrip- tions; nostalgic descriptions of villa and manor life; the impressions of Swedish writers (especially Gunnar Ekelöf, Johannes Edfelt and Harry Martinson); Olof Enckell’s Karelian trilogy; and some other descriptions of wartime history and a couple of works of history. The main themes are: nostalgic memories, the joys and sorrows of the artist’s life, the experience of loss, and the contrast between East and West, and Karelia as a borderland. For many, it was an impressive experience to visit Edith Södergran’s home and meet the poet’s elderly mother. Karelia became a large place of memory (lieu de mémoire), within which were smaller places of memory, such as villas and mansions, which were constantly repeated in the writers’ presentations.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2021-03-31T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022