Saako ”hyvän” tappaa epäoikeutetussa sodassa?
The aim of this paper is to provoke deep thought about several fundamental questions, such as whether the difference between justified and unjustified wars is still relevant in times of climate crisis and eco-crisis. The paper answers in the affirmative, while introducing readers to the recent military ethical and philosophical research concerning not only “morality in war” but also “ethics and ethicality in all times”. The paper delves into the debates between various ethical schools of thought with the aim of taking part in the turn towards an emphasis on consequences (i.e. consequentialism; utilitarianism) in this shared context (the Earth). In so doing, the text familiarizes readers with the writings of “conventionalists” (e.g. Michael Walzer) and “revisionists” (e.g. Jeff McMahan), while grounding the philosophical analysis in the Just War tradition for the most part. Additionally, the study invites those who are more interested in the approaches adopted by international law studies to participate in the forthcoming multi-hermeneutic learning processes. It identifies the strategic cultural transformation that has taken place in the Finnish Defence Forces since 2009, namely the overemphasis on the legal approach and systemic neglect of philosophical studies (i.e. ethics and ethicality). To this end, the dominant worldview of the Finnish Defence Forces seems to be an emphasis on realism over constructivism, for example; an emphasis on the “next war” over human and societal security; and, consequently, an overemphasis on the “impossibility to learn” and negligence with regard to the need for deep cultural transformations. The paper synthetizes the key virtues, but also explains how the “good consequences” are pivotal for all of us who share responsibilities and obligations with regard to such matters.