Kuulustelumenetelmät ja vilpin tunnistaminen – tarve paradigman muutokseen valheenpaljastustutkimuksessa
Typically, the goal of a scientific lie detection research is to discover a method with which test subjects can be classified into two categories at group level: The liars and the truth tellers. This type of categorizing is suitable for law enforcement purposes as the questioning of a suspected criminal is aided by a lie detection method. Deceit detection and veracity assessment offer a slightly broader view compared to a simple dichotomy of a liar and a truth teller. An integral part in the process of detecting deceit is the interview or interrogation technique. Many different techniques and methods exist in this field as well.
In order to form a solid foundation for the future understanding of the available interviewing or interrogation techniques and veracity assessment methods, an applicability study of the existing methods was conducted. The research problem was to identify existing techniques and methods which are based on a solid scientific foundation and assess possible method related preconditions. Two major databases, Google Scholar and Science Direct, were used to search and collect existing problem related studies and other publications. After that a Meta-Analysis was conducted to establish deeper understanding of the methods taken under scrutiny. Multi Criteria Analysis utilizing Analytical Hierarchy Process was used for the applicability assessment of the studied interviewing or interrogation techniques and veracity assessment methods.
For the purposes of human intelligence the previously mentioned two fold choice is not enough. When collecting intelligence from human source, the acquired information is seldom 100 % true or false, or the person him/herself is a total liar or a truth teller. A more diagnostic approach would be to assess which parts of the statement or obtained information is likely to be true and what pieces of information are likely untrue. This leads to a shift of paradigm in the veracity assessment in support of the human intelligence collection. For practical purposes it would be beneficial to be able to identify possibly deceitful segments within otherwise truthful statement.