Kenraali Johan Laidonerin Viron puolustusta koskevista ajatuksista vuosina 1934-39


  • Martti Turtola


sotahistoria, Johan Laidoner, Viron historia, Baltian historia, toinen maailmansota, sotataito


GENERAL, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF JOHAN LAIDONER AND ESTONIAN DEFENCE IN 1934-1939 A Short Chronology[1] February 1884 A boy, named Johan was born in parish of Viiratsi, near the Estonian-Livonian town Viljandi. August 1901 Johan Laidoner enlisted in the Russian Army. September 1902 J. L. enrolled at the Infantry Cadet School in Vilno. April 1905 J. L. was graduated from the Vilno Cadet School. November 1908 J. L. was promoted to Lieutenant. October 1909 J. L. entered the Imperial Nicholas Military Academy in St. Petersburg. June 1912 J. L. was graduated from the Imperial Military Academy. January 1913 J. L. was promoted to Staff Captain. July-August 1914 J. L. was moved to the Staff of the 3rd Caucasus Corps, as World War broke out, and went with it to the Southwestern Front. December 1914 J. L. was promoted to Major. November-December 1915 J. L. was appointed Assistant to Commander of the Reconnaissance Department in the Staff of the Russian Western Front. August 1916 J. L. was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. October 1917 J. L. was appointed in the Chief of Staff of the 62nd Division. December 1917 Johan Laidoner was ordered to move to Estonia. January 1918 J. L. began his work as a Commander of the 1st Estonian Division. April 1918 J. L. was promoted to Colonel. December 1918 J. L. was appointed the Commander-in-Chief of the Estonian Armed Forces. January 1919 J. L. was promoted to Major General. February 1920 The Estonian War of Independence ended with victory under Laidoner’s leadership. March 1920 J. L. was released from his post of the Commander-in-Chief. J. L. was promoted to Lieutnat General. December 1920 J. L. began his work in the first Estonian Parliament. September 1922 J. L. began his carrieer in the League of Nations. December 1924 In connection with the attemp of Bolshevik coup, Laidoner was appointed for a short period in the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. October-December 1925 J. L. was sent to Mosul as a Commissioner of the League of Nations to solve the Turkey-Iraq border conflict. March 1934 President Konstantin Päts appointed Laidoner to the post of the Commander-in-Chief of the Estonian Army. Together with the President, they declared a state of national emergency. On the same day Laidoner decreed meetings of all political parties to be illegal. February 1939 J. L. was promoted to the rank of General. June 1940 President Konstantin Päts dismissed Laidoner from the post of the Commander-in-Chief as ordered by the Soviet occupation authorities. June 1940 Johan and Maria Laidoner were deported to Russia. After a stop in Moscow, they were taken to the town of Pensa. March 1953 Johan Laidoner died in the Vladimir Prison only a week after his antagonist Josef Stalin. After appointed a Commander-in-Chief of the Estonian Army in 1934 Laidoner immediately started changing the strategic and operational plans of the army. He critisized sharply the former leadership to be too passiv and defencive. General Laidoner emphasized the whole period of his command activity and offensive. The building of fortifications on the Narva-river -line and in Petser area, southeast Estonia, started again on the 30’s. Laidoner’s attitude to defend Estonia was absolytely stiff. According to him it was necessary to start active defence operations immediately from the border. Laidoner relied on the patriotic feeling of Estonian people. There was no doubt that Estonian people could not fight for the independence and freedom of its country. This would happen also alone and without any allies. The result of the political development in September 1939 was opposite. Republic of Estonia joined to the military-political pact with the Soviet Union. The Soviet Fleet took Estonian waters to their controll. Military and naval bases were founded in many places aroud Estonia. Artikkeli on suomen kielellä ja luettavissa painetussa julkaisussa Tiede ja ase 65 (hinta 20 €). Julkaisun voi tilata Tiedekirjasta sähköpostitse tai verkkokaupasta

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Martti Turtola





Turtola, M. (2008). Kenraali Johan Laidonerin Viron puolustusta koskevista ajatuksista vuosina 1934-39. Tiede Ja Ase, 65. Noudettu osoitteesta