Urban design with weather variability – Adaptive capacity approaches towards Northern climate now and in the future
This conceptual paper examines different conceptions of weather variability as a starting point for urban design and planning in Northern climate. It explores the possible over-arching approaches towards weather, mapping connections and differences between them. Thus, the paper forms an intial framework that helps to understand urban spaces’ adaptive capacity towards climate.
Weather variability in urban design and planning context is discussed both inductively and deductively, based on a literature review on proposed design solutions in Northern urban design. This is reflected and combined to theories and concepts on adaptive capacity and resilience in climate change adaptation literature. Reacting to current climate and climate change are combined into a dynamic framework, thus finding connections between solutions to current weather variability and future adaptation. Sustaining, recovering, adapting and supple approaches are proposed as categories for different approaches to framing weather variability and reacting to it.
Three main conditions characterize the proposed framework: (1) a balance between the approaches is needed to achieve both adaptive capacity and maintain the stability and identity of a place. (2) Framing weather variability as a seasonal cycle might have possibilities to act as a mediator in preparing for future climatic changes in urban design and planning processes. (3) When discussing temporary element such as climate, management cannot be separated from spatial adaptive qualities. When taking the climate into account, urban environment should be understood both as a process and a form.
Adger, W. Neil, 2006. “Vulnerability”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 16, p. 268-281
Arctic Council, 2013. Arctic Resilience Interim Report 2013. Stockholm Environment Institute and Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm
Barnett, Jon O’Neill, Saffron, 2010. “Editorial: Maladaptation”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 20, p. 211–213
Brooks, Nick, 2003. Vulnerability, risk, adaptation: A conceptual framework. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Working Paper 38.
Børve, Anne Brit. 1989. Hus og husgrupper i klimautsatte, kalde strøk utforming og virkemåte. The Design and function of single buildings and building groups in harsh, clod climates. Akitekthøgskolen i Oslo
Davoudi, Simin; Crawford, Jenny; Mehmood, Abid (eds.) 2010. Planning for climate change: Strategies for mitigation and adaptation for spatial planners, Earthscan, London
Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; van der Knaap, Wim G.M. 2009. ”The mitigation–adaptation dichotomy and the role of spatial planning”, Habitat International, vol. 33, p. 230–237
Brooks, Nick; Adger, W. Neil; Kelly, P. Mick, 2005. “The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 15, p. 151-163
Carruth, Susan J. 2014. ”Resilience and renewable energy planning in Greenland: Proposing a biologic-geologic spectrum”. In Jensen, Lotte M. B. (ed.) Conference Proceedings of the 10th ARTEK Event: Urbanisation in the Arctic – Challenges to Sustainability, pp. 53-62
De Vries, Jochem, 2006. “Interface. Climate Change and Spatial Planning Below Sea-Level: Water, Water and More Water”, Planning Theory & Practice, Vol. 7, No. 2, 201–230.
Ebrahimabadi, Saeed. 2012. Improvements in Addressing Cold Climate Factors in Urban Planning and Design. Licenciate thesis. Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå
Eliasson, Ingegärd; Knez, Igor; Westerberg, Ulla; Thorsson, Sofia; Lindberg, Fredrik 2007. ”Climate and behavior in a Nordic city”. Landscape and Urban Planning vol.82 no. 1-2, p.72-84
Eriksen, Siri; Aldunce, Paulinen, Bahinipati, Chandra Sekhar; d’Almeida Martin, Rafael; Molefe, John Isaac; Nhemachena, Charles; O’Brien, Karen; Olorunfem, Felix; Park, Jacob; Sygna, Linda; Ulsrud, Kirsten 2011. ”When not every response to climate change is a good one: Indetifying principles for sustainable adaptation. Review article”, Climate and Development, vol. 3, p. 7-20
Folke, Carl, 2006. “Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for socio-ecological systems analyses”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 16, p. 253-267
Füssel, Hans-Martin; Klein, Richard T., 2006. “Climate change vulnerability assessments: An evolution of conceptual thinking”, Climate Change, vol. 75, p. 301-329
Graves, H.M.; Phillipson, M.C. 2001. Really rethinking construction: potential implications of climate change in the built environment. Building Research & Information, vol. 29, no. 5, p. 409–412
Haanpää, Simo; Jokisalo, Juha; Jylhä, Kirsti, Käyhkö, Jukka, Lahdensivu, Jukka, Makkonen, Lasse, Tietäväinen, Hanna, Vinha, Juha; Wahlgren, Irmeli 2012. ”Alueidenkäyttö, yhdyskunnat ja rakentaminen”. In Miten väistämättömään ilmastonmuutokseen voidaan varautua? Yhteenveto suomalaisesta sopeutumistutkimuksesta eri toimialoilla. Raportti, Maa- ja metsätalousministeriö
Hunt, A. and Watkiss, P., 2011. ”Climate change impacts and adaptation in cities: a review of the literature”. Climatic Change, vol. 104 no. 1, p. 13-49
Hough, Michael, 1995. Cities and Natural Process. Routledge, London.
Leichenko, Robin 2011. ”Climate change and urban resilience”. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 3, p. 164–168
Integovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2014a. 5th Assesment Report, Glossary, available at: http://ipcc-wg2.gov/AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Glossary_FGD.pdf [7.6.2014]
Integovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2014b. 5th Assessment Report, Working Group III, Mitigation of Climate Change. Chapter 9, Buildings, available at: http://report.mitigation2014.org/drafts/final-draft-postplenary/ipcc_wg3_ar5_final-draft_postplenary_chapter9.pdf [7.6.2014]
Jylhä, Kirsti; Ruosteenoja, Kimmo; Räisänen, Jouni; Venäläinen, Ari; Tuomenvirta, Heikki, Ruokolainen, Leena, Saku, Seppo; Seitola, Teija, 2009. Arvioita Suomen muuttuvasta ilmastosta sopeutumistutkimuksia varten. ACCLIM-hanke. Ilmatieteen laitos, Raportteja 2009:4
Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia, 2008. ”Thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a park: Cross-cultural and environmental attitude comparisons”, Building and Environment, vol. 43, p. 1483-1490
Kuismanen, Kimmo. 2008. Climate-conscious architecture: design and wind testing method for climates in change. PhD Dissertation. University of Oulu, Oulu
Martin-Breen, Patrick; Anderies, J. Marty, 2011. Resilience: A literature review. Rockefeller Center Foundation.
Müller, B., 2010. “Urban and regional resilience: A new catchword or a consistent concept for research and practice?” In Müller, B. (ed.) German Annual of Spatial research and Policy. Berlin Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag.
Nelson, Donald; Adger, W. Neil; Brown, Katrina, 2007. “Adaptation to Environmental Change: Contributions of a Resilience Framework”, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 32, p. 395-419
Pressman, Norman, 1995. Northern cityscape: Linking design to climate. Northern Cities Association, Yellowknife
Pressman, Norman, 2004. Shaping Cities for Winter – Climatic comfort and sustainable design. Winter Cities Association, Prince george
Reinosdotter, Karin, 2011. Sustainable snow handling. PhD Thesis, Luleå University of Technology Department of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering Division of Architecture and Infrastructure
Rittel, Horst and Webber, Melvin, 1973. “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”, Policy Sciences, vol. 4, p. 155–169
Roggema, Rob; Vermeend, Tim; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy, 2012. “Incremental change, transition or transformation? Optimising change, pathways for climate adaptation in spatial planning”, Sustainability, vol. 4, p. 2525-2549.
Roggema, Rob, 2012. Swarm planning: The development of a planning methodology to deal with climate adaptation, PhD Dissertation, Technical University of Delft
Sanchez-Rodriquez, Roberto 2009. ”Learning to adapt to climate change in urban areas. A review of recent contributions”. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, vol. 1 p. 201–206
Setoguchi, Tsuyoshi, 2008. New Urban Design Approaches with Snow Simulations for Cold and Snowy Cities, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, vol. 99 May, p. 93-99
Shaw, R.; Colley, M.; and Connell, R., 2007. Climate change adaptation by design: a guide for sustainable communities, TCPA, London, available at: http://www.tcpa.org.uk/data/files/bd_cca.pdf [7.6.2014]
Smit, Barry; Wandel, Johanna, 2006. “Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 16, p. 282-292
Smith, Neil, 2013. Evolving cities: Exploring the relations between urban form resilience and the governance of urban form, London School of Economics and Political Science
Stehr, Nico; von Storch, Hans, 1995. ”The social construct of climate and climate change”. Climate Research, vol. 5, p. 99-105
Swart, Rob; Raes, Frank, 2007. ”Making integration of adaptation and mitigation work: mainstreaming into sustainable development policies?” Climate Policy, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 288-303
Taleb, Nassim Nicholas, 2012. Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder, Random House, USA
Tol, Richard S.J., 2005. ”Adaptation and mitigation: trade-offs in substance and methods”, Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 8, p. 572–578
Tøsse, Sunniva, 2013. ”Concern and confidence. Architects making sense of climate adaptation”. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, vol. 40
Van Buuren, Arwin; Driessen, Peter; van Rijswick, Marleen; Rietveld, Piet; Salet, Wille, Spit, Tejo, Teisman, Geert, 2013. “Towards adaptive spatial planning for climate change: balancing between robustness and flexibility”, Journal for European Environmental Planning Law, vol.10, no.1, p. 29-53
Westerberg, Ulla 2009. ”The significance of climate for the use of urban outdoor spaces: Some results from case studies in two Nordic cities”. International Journal of Architectural Research (IJAR), vol.3 no.1 p.131-144
Wilson, Elisabeth, 2006. “Adapting to Climate Change at the Local Level: The Spatial Planning Response”. Local Environment, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 609–625
Woltjer, Johan; Al, Niels, 2007. “Integrating water management and spatial planning”. Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 73, no. 2, p. 211-222
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.