Authors submitting a manuscript do so on the understanding that the work has not been published before, is not being considered for publication elsewhere, and has been read and approved by all authors. Submit your manuscript in English (British or American throughout), Finnish or Swedish exclusively to the Editor. Linguistic usage should be correct. The journal will not provide linguistic checking.The are no page charges. If in doubt about the general format – consult a new issue of the journal. Three copies (printouts with numbered pages) with figures, their captions, and tables (on separate pages) are needed. Submission can be done along two tracks: (1) Manuscripts can be sent electronically in the form of (preferably) a MSWord document to email@example.com (2) Manuscripts (three copies of the text, figures and tables) may be mailed to Mikael Kilpi, Aronia, Raseborgsvägen 9, FI-10600 Ekenäs, Finland. At this stage, no electronic files are required. The author’s telephone, telefax numbers and possibly e-mail address, should always be provided together with the postal address. In principle, only manuscripts prepared on a computer will be considered. When accepted, a diskette with a file containing the manuscript and possibly fileswith the figures has to be provided. Illustrations will not be returned. Recommended format The text of a manuscript should be typed in courier without special style settings (unindented, no boldface, capitalization, multiple spaces or other unusual formatting). A blank line should be used to separate headings, sections and paragraphs from the text that follows. Title: Never in capitals or boldface, not centred. Author: Always full first name (other initials, if any) and surname (Bruce S. Steen, not B. S. Steen). Address: As complete as possible. The sequence: author’s name and address, must be fully repeated for each author. Abstract should consist of only one paragraph of up to 200 words. It should be informative (summarising) rather than indicative (listing). All relevantkey words should be included in the abstract, and should not be given as a separate list. Articles submitted as ‘Brief reports’ do not require an abstract. If the manuscript is intended to be published in a domestic language (Swedish, finnish) an abstract in English must be provided – we also encourage an abstract in a domestic language for articles published in English, provided that he author is able to supply such an abstract. Headings of chapters (Introduction, Material and methods, Results, Discussion and other main headings) are numbered decimally starting with ‘1.’. ‘Abstract’, ’References’ and ‘Acknowledgements’, are not numbered. Sub-chapters headings must be numbered e.g.: ‘1.1.’, ‘1.1.1.’ and so on, depending on how many levels of sub-chapters you have in your article. Use italics for Latin names of species (e.g. Parus ater) and words that are originally notEnglish (e.g. in vitro, et al.). Use initial capitals for common species names of birds only (e.g. Grey-headed Woodpecker, Blue Tit, but in general woodpeckers, tits/titmice). Referring to literature in the text: • Mihok et al. (1985) or (Mihok et al. 1985). • Kurtén and Anderson (1980) or (Kurtén & Anderson 1980). • (Kurtén & Anderson 1980, Mihok et al. 1985). When referring to more than one publication, arrange them using the following keys: 1. year of publication (ascending), 2. alphabetical order for the same year of publication. References: Begin with the heading ‘References’; they must have the same format as the text (scientific names are not italicised). Abbreviate journal names as in Biol.Abstracts; if in doubt, do not abbreviate. Each reference must be separated from the next one with one blank line. • Ordinary journal article: Järvinen, O. & Väisänen, R. A. 1978: Long-term changes of the most abundant south Finnish forest birds during the past 50 years. —J. Ornithol. 119: 441–449. • If an article is printed with Cyrillic letters, use translated (not transliterated!) title (within parentheses () if not translated in original publication): Korbut, V. V. 1989: Nest building of hooded crows. 1. Utilisation of different substrata. — Zool. Zh. 68: 88–95. (In Russian with English summary.) • Book: Kurtén, B. & Anderson, E. 1980: Pleistocene mammals of North America. — Columbia Univ. Press, New York. • Chapter in a publication: Gerlach, S.A. 1978: Nematomorpha.—In: Illies, J. (ed.),Limnofauna Europaea. 2 ed.: 50–53. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 3 ed. — Int. Trust Zool. Nomencl., London 1985. Finnish Meteorol. Inst. 1989: Climatological data 1988. — Meteorol. Yearb. Finland 88: 1–125. • Article in press may be included in the references list, with the name of the journal and year followed by ‘(In press.)’. • Material in preparation or unpublished cannot be included in the reference list, and can only be referred to in the text using all authors’ initial(s) and name(s) followed by ‘in prep.’, ‘unpubl.’ or ‘pers. comm.’. Tables should be made exclusively with the same word-processing program as the text. They must be referred to as ‘Table’ (tabell, taulukko), followed by a number. They must fit an A4 page (upright). Do not use the table tools of your word-processing program. Always use tabulator marks to separate columns within tables (there must be the same amount of tabulator marks as columns in a table). Never use multiple spaces or spaces and tabs while formatting tables. Do not use vertical lines as dividers, only horizontal lines are allowed. Tables should never be placed into the text, each table should be a separate file! Figures, drawings and photographs must be referred to as ‘Fig.’ (fig, kuva), followed by a number. All figures (pictures, drawings and photographs) must be clearly identified on the other sidewith the name(s) of the author(s) and number of the figure. In questionable cases, the top of the picture should be marked. A figure, drawing or photograph including all texts and legends can be at the most 200 mm (width) 290 mm (height). Avoid fancy design (e.g. 3-D). Relate the size of letters, the thickness of lines, and the size of other parts of a figure, to the size of the figure itself. Explain all graphic symbols within the figure. Identify parts of a composite figurewith letters, not numbers. Do not use fine rasters for filling of columns or areas. Only solid (white and/or black) or line-type fillings are allowed. Figures must withstand size reduction. – Figures may be submitted as separate photographs, or electronically as separate tiff, jpg, eps or pdf files (not embedded in the text!). Procedure after acceptance All manuscripts within the scope of the journal are reviewed by at least two reviewers. Authors will generally be notified of acceptance or rejection within two months. The Author(s) should consider all suggestions proposed by the referees and the Editor, andmake appropriate changes. Major changes presuppose a new review process. The Editor retains the right tomodify the style and length of a manuscript; for major changes the Author(s) will be consulted. First or appointed author will receive a pageproof for approval. Extensive alterations are not allowed at this stage. At this stage, we will require a copyright transfer agreement with the author(s). When sending a finalised version of an accepted manuscript, use short, meaningful file names. Save word-processor files in RTF (.rtf) or preferably, in MSWORD.doc format. The journal will supply the author with a PDF-file of the article for personal use, no offprints are supplied. Copyright LAITETAANKO TÄHÄN JA MIKÄ ON LEHDEN LINJA TÄSSÄ Author of an accepted article transfers the full copyright ownership (including that of illustrations) to Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica (SFFF), so that the article can be copyrighted from now on under the name of SFFF and published by SFFF in any available form. The author warrants that the article (including the illustrations) is an original work, not published, scheduled to be published, or submitted elsewhere in whole or in part, except in an abstract form, and that the author has full authority to make this grant. The author also warrants that if a part of the article has been previously published elsewhere, permission allowing publication of the respective material in our journal has been obtained, and an appropriate statement mentioning the original source has been added to the text where needed. A copy of permission should preferably be submitted with the manuscript or at the latest provided upon acceptance. Permission issued by SFFF must be obtained by third parties wishing to reproduce figures, tables and/or substantial parts of texts from articles published by SFFF. In a new publication an appropriate acknowledgement should be placed. SFFF will allow the author to reproduce or re-use parts of their original material without permission. If, however, the author wishes to include the entire article in another publication, a separate permission issued by SFFF should be obtained. In a new publication an appropriate acknowledgement should be placed. The Board assumes that such a publication will not be commercially distributed (sold); otherwise a financial compensation for reproducing the article may apply. Transferring the copyrights to SFFF will not render any royalty or any other financial compensation.