Design science research towards resilient cyber-physical eHealth systems


  • Jyri Rajamäki Laurea University of Applied Sciences
  • Rauno Pirinen Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Espoo


eHealth, cyber trust, cyber-physical system, information security, resilience, software-intensive system


Most eHealth systems are cyber-physical systems (CPSs) making safety-critical decisions based on information from other systems not known during development. In this design science research, a conceptual resilience governance framework for eHealth CPSs is built utilizing 1) cybersecurity initiatives, standards and frameworks, 2) science of design for software-intensive systems and 3) empowering cyber trust and resilience. According to our study, a resilient CPS consists of two sub-systems: the proper resilient system and the situational awareness system. In a system of CPSs, three networks are composed: platform, software and social network. The resilient platform network is the basis on which information sharing between stakeholders could be created via software layers. However, the trust inside social networks quantifies the pieces of information that will be shared - and with whom. From citizens’ point of view, eHealth is wholeness in which requirements of information security hold true. Present procedures emphasize confidentiality at the expense of integrity and availability, and regulations/instructions are used as an excuse not to change even vital information. The mental-picture of cybersecurity should turn from “threat, crime, attack” to “trust” and “resilience”. Creating confidence in safe digital future is truly needed in the integration of the digital and physical world’s leading to a new digital revolution. The precondition for the exchange of information “trust” must be systematically built at every CPS’ level. In health sector, increasingly interconnected social, technical and economic networks create large complex CPSs, and risk assessment of many individual components becomes cost and time prohibitive. When no-one can control all aspects of CPSs, protection-based risk management is not enough to help prepare for and prevent consequences of foreseeable events, but resilience must be built into systems to help them quickly recover and adapt when adverse events do occur.


Download data is not yet available.
Scientific articles



How to Cite

Rajamäki, J., & Pirinen, R. (2017). Design science research towards resilient cyber-physical eHealth systems. Finnish Journal of EHealth and EWelfare, 9(2-3), 203–216.