Emergence history of the Karelian Isthmus


  • Matti Saarnisto


The Late Weichselian and Holocene emergence history of the Karelian Isthmus and Ladoga Karelia is reasonably well known and the palaeohydrological framework can be worked out, including the chronology of events, which is now entirely based on calibrated radiocarbon dates. Some precisely dated events and morphologically well-developed shorelines form the basis also for archaeological investigations and interpretations. These include the upper limit of the Ancylus transgression, dated at 8100 calendar years BC , the upper limit of the Litorina transgression from 5500 BC in Säkkijärvi to slightly over 5000 BC in Terijoki, and further the drainage of Lake Saimaa to Lake Ladoga at 3700 BC and the upper limit of the Ladoga transgression at 1350 BC, as well as the history and elevations of the ancient Lake Vuoksenlaakso, which terminated as late as in the 19th century.