Periodization and Chronology of the Eneolithic in the Upper and Middle Kama Regions


  • Aleksandr A. Vybornov
  • Eugeniya L. Lychagina
  • Marianna A. Kulkova
  • Andrey F. Melnichuk


The territory of the Upper and Middle Kama regions is important for study on account of the Turbino sites that have been open there. Artifacts of this type have also been found in Finland. Subsequently, there have been several topics of discussion. Some archaeologists considered the Garino cultural complexes to be from an earlier period, while others supposed that they had appeared simultaneously with the Bor cultural type. The single radiocarbon dates were only obtained for the Garino culture. Therefore, the periodization and chronology of the Eneolithic in the Kama region have not been developed. In recent years, new archaeological sites have been excavated and a series of radiocarbon dates have been obtained for both types of cultures. This allowed us to work out the periodization and chronology of the Eneolithic of the Upper and Middle Kama regions in more detail. The chronological framework of the Garino culture was determined from 4500 BP to 3500 BP (ca. 3500-1600 calBC). The sites of the Bor cultural type were occupied from 4200 BP to 3900 BP (ca. 3000-2200 calBC). Thus, the chronological priority of the Garino culture is established. According to the typological and chronological framework, two stages in the development of the Garino culture were elaborated. The coexistence of the Garino and Bor complexes had a place at the end of the early stage of the Garino culture.