Women and References to Women in Mesopotamian Royal Inscriptions: An Overview from the Early Dynastic to the end of Ur III period
The aim of this article is to present textual fragments from Mesopotamian royal inscriptions (and some texts dealing with them) created in the third millennium bc between the Early Dynastic and Ur III periods, that were written by women or include references to women. When possible, this article also contains short descriptions and discussion of the specific women and the context of their appearance in a given text. The main reason for limiting this short study to royal inscriptions is the huge number of preserved texts of different kinds (economic, legal, religious, etc.) in which women are mentioned. As this article focuses only on mortal women; any references to goddesses as well as other female supernatural beings will be omitted.The main finding of this research is that there are significant differences in the number of references to women, and in roles that they play in specific texts – as well as a changing number of personal inscriptions from women – dependent on the period of a text’s origins.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g. post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).