Mapping the languages of Twitter in Finland:
Richness and diversity in space and time
Twitter is a popular social media platform for scholarly research, because the user-generated content on the platform can also include geographic and temporal information. We collect a corpus of 38 million Twitter messages with two million geographical coordinates to map the languages used across Finland at the level of regions and municipalities. To cope with the high volume of social media data, we use automatic language identiﬁcation and place of residence detection. We estimate the linguistic richness and diversity of users and locations using measures developed within ecology and information sciences. The analyses reveal a rich, multilingual environment that varies geographically and temporally, particularly between coastal, rural and urban areas. The results, which underline the mutual beneﬁts of collaboration between linguists and geographers, provide a more ﬁne-grained, accurate and comprehensive view of the languages used on Twitter in Finland than previously available.