Sources at the end of the cuneiform era


  • Tero Alstola
  • Paola Corò
  • Rocio Da Riva
  • Sebastian Fink
  • Michael Jursa
  • Ingo Kottsieper
  • Martin Lang
  • M. Willis Monroe
  • Laurie Pearce
  • Reinhard Pirngruber
  • Kai Ruffing
  • Saana Svärd


cuneiform writing, mesopotamia, mesopotamian archives


The aim of this article is to discuss several groups of sources which are of special interest regarding the question of Mesopotamian identities after 539 bce, towards the end of the use of cuneiform writing. In this late period, several languages and scripts were in use in Mesopotamia; therefore, groups of Akkadian, Aramaic, Greek, and Sumerian texts are discussed. The scripts used are Aramaic letters, cuneiform, and the Greek alphabet. A scholar who is interested in late Mesopotamian identities needs to take all these documents into account. This article aims at giving a brief overview on available textual material and where to find it. The topics of these texts vary from administrative documents to highly literary texts. The authors discuss Aramaic inscriptions, legal and administrative cuneiform texts, the astronomical diaries, the Seleucid Uruk scholarly texts, the late Babylonian priestly literature, Emesal cult-songs from the Hellenistic period, the Graeco-Babyloniaca (clay tablets containing cuneiform and Greek), and finally Greek inscriptions from Mesopotamia.

How to Cite

Alstola, T., Corò, P., Da Riva, R., Fink, S., Jursa, M., Kottsieper, I., Lang, M., Monroe, M. W., Pearce, L., Pirngruber, R., Ruffing, K., & Svärd, S. (2023). Sources at the end of the cuneiform era. Studia Orientalia Electronica, 11(2), 5–29.