Kahden vahvan kielen mallia päivittämässä: maahanmuuttotaustaisten monikielisten peruskoululaisten koulupolku Suomessa, Ruotsissa ja Norjassa

Updating the model of two strong languages: multilingual immigrant students’ school pathway in Finland, Sweden and Norway


  • Maria Ahlholm Helsingin yliopisto
  • Anna Slotte Helsingin yliopisto
  • Kirsi Wallinheimo Helsingin yliopisto


monikieliset oppilaat, toisen kielen opetus, oman äidinkielen opetus


The Declaration on a Nordic Language Policy (2006) announces that all permanent residents in the Nordic countries have the right to learn the majority language and develop as users of one’s mother tongue. It is generally accepted that proficiency in two languages leads to good learning results. This article examines timely basic education policy documents about linguistic support for multilingual first and second generation immigrant students in Finland, Sweden and Norway: what premises do they offer to positive bilingualism and double identity construction? We illustrate school paths for newcomers’ support in the study language (L2), and in the students’ mother tongue. The policy documents are open for discussion in all examined countries. The findings show that no ideal system has yet been established. The Finnish way of organizing L2 instruction reminds both of Swedish and Norwegian structures. Critical views on a systemic level are needed for a better modeling of multilingual school.