Liikennebiokaasun käyttöönotto Suomessa
AbstraktiIntroduction of Traffic Biogas Technology in Finland
The adoption of biogas technology into traffic use in Helsinki in 1941 is an example of technology transfer completely controlled by the municipality, to the extent that access to biogas produced in sewage treatment plants was restricted to captive fleets owned or operated by the City of Helsinki or municipal companies. In this case, the crisis caused by the war was an important factor for enabling the process. However, it was not the only factor, as capacity had been continuously built up over the previous 40 years, and the city had a long experience in political decision-making enabling technology transfer. A technology system consisting of traffic biogas production in two sewage treatment plants and almost 100 different kinds of vehicles modified for biogas use was very rapidly set up. This proved successful both technically and commercially. However, the system was shut down in 1946 after oil imports began after the war. This article gives an overview of the political and technological developments in Helsinki, from the start-up in 1941 until the shutting down of the system in 1946, using archive records of the municipal council and municipal offices as well as historical articles. The article also includes a review of global technological development paths enabling the City of Helsinki to begin utilizing biogas in traffic.