Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), false flax (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz), caraway (Carum carvi L.), dyers woad (Isatis tinctoria L.), nettle (Urtica dioica L.), reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea L.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM) accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;
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