Flowers visited by honey bee in southern Finland


  • Markku Käpylä Department of Biology, University of Jyväskylä, SF-40100 Jyväskylä, Finland
  • Paavo Niemelä Deceased 12. VIII. 1951


A list of nectar and pollen sources of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) in southern Finland based on 44 500 flower records is presented. Only the common wild and cultivated species are included, 139 species altogether. The flowering times are shown with an accuracy of two weeks. The most important food sources during spring (April—May) are Salix spp., and Tussilago farfara: during early summer (late May and June) Salix spp., Taraxacum officinale, Acer platanoides, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Barbarea vulgaris, Ribes spp., Malus domestica, Sorbus aucuparia, and Geranium sylvaticum; during mid-summer Trifolium repens, T. hybridum, Rubus idaeus, Tilia cordata, Epilobium angustifolium, and Cirsium arvense; during late summer and early autumn Calluna vulgaris, Arctium tomentosum, Sonchus arvensis and Leontodon autumnalis.


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How to Cite

Käpylä, M., & Niemelä, P. (1979). Flowers visited by honey bee in southern Finland. Agricultural and Food Science, 51(1), 17–24.