Effects of lighting, semi-closed greenhouse and split-root fertigation on energy use and CO2 emissions in high latitude cucumber growing
Effects of supplemental lighting, semi-closed greenhouse and split-root fertigation on weekly to seasonal heat and electricity use and CO2 emissions in cucumber growing were estimated in Finland. With moderate lighting (170 W m-2 above rows, 60 W m-2 inter-row) in a ventilated greenhouse, seasonal electricity and heat use (MJ kg-1 cucumber) were 20–50 and 10–25, 17–30 and 3–8, 38–55 and 10–18 in spring, summer and autumn to mid-winter, respectively. In summer, a semi-closed greenhouse improved energy use efficiency by 20–30% and split-root fertigation by 0–15%. Raising light intensity and applying inter- row lighting allowed higher yields in autumn to mid-winter without affecting electricity use efficiency. In other seasons, increasing the lighting decreased the efficiency. The emissions largely resulted from electricity use. Direct emissions (kg CO2-eq kg-1) based on propane and electricity from the national grid were 2.5, 1.5 and 3.3 in spring, summer and autumn to mid-winter, respectively. Efficiency of using solar and supplemental PAR was markedly lower in summer than in other seasons. The results provide profile of energy use and emissions and point to ways to reduce them.